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化学浴沉积法制备铜铟镓硒薄膜太阳能电池缓冲层材料CdS

发布时间:2018-10-11 20:03  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:当前,随着化石能源的日益枯竭以及环境污染等问题迫使人们寻求可替代的再生新能源。而且光伏产业正在成为各国经济发展的战略新兴产业。其中作为第三代的薄膜太阳能电池铜铟镓硒(CIGS)也在逐渐产业化。然而,在如何进一步提高电池效率以及大规模产业化确保重复性方面还存在很多障碍。铜铟镓硒太阳能电池涉及很多层薄膜材料的制备,工艺复杂,每一层材料的制备都会对电池性能有影响。本论文就化学浴沉积法合成缓冲层材料CdS薄膜的工艺及其生长机制进行了一些研究。 化学浴沉积法制备CdS薄膜主要涉及到两种机制:ion-by-ion和cluster-by-cluster;两种机制生长出来的薄膜具有不同的物理性质。条件的改变(如温度、浓度、pH值、沉积时间等)会对薄膜的生长速率,表面形貌,晶体结构,光学性质等产生很大的影响。由于反应物浓度和pH值的影响在文献中已经有很多报道,本文着重选取了沉积温度和时间对薄膜性能的影响。 在60oC、70oC、80oC、90oC条件下,沉积不同时间得到CdS薄膜,对其进行SEM、XRD以及OT表征,根据Urbach公式计算带隙。随着沉积温度的增加,薄膜生长速率加快直到达到饱和厚度,然后由于剥蚀,进一步反应薄膜厚度会降低。本文提出,不论温度,薄膜的生长一开始由ion-by-ion机制占主导,随着时间的进行,cluster-by-cluster机制控制着反应。并从表面形貌,晶体结构,带隙值变化等方面对这一生长机制作出了合理的解释。 另外,尽管铜铟镓硒太阳能电池在未来几年仍有很大发展潜力,但由于铟在地壳中的分布量比较小,其最终势必会受到限制。类似铜铟镓硒(CuInxGa1 xSe2)薄膜的铜锌锡硫薄膜(Cu2ZnSnS4)正在引起实验室的广泛关注。它们具有相同的黄铜矿晶体结构,类似的光电性质。铜锌锡硫薄膜的直接带隙为1.4ev 1.5ev,其中的各种基本元素在地壳中分布广泛且无毒。且目前采用共蒸发法,效率为6.77%的CZTS太阳能电池已经被制备出。因此,本论文在非真空法制备CZTS薄膜方面也做了一些初步的探索。 利用Sol Gel法合成金属前驱体,在氢气氛中退火,最后硫化的过程得到CZTS薄膜。
[Abstract]:At present, with the increasing depletion of fossil energy and environmental pollution, people seek alternative renewable energy sources. And photovoltaic industry is becoming a strategic emerging industry of economic development in various countries. As the third generation of thin film solar cells, copper, indium, gallium and selenium (CIGS) are gradually industrialized. However, there are still many obstacles to further improving battery efficiency and ensuring repeatability in large-scale industrialization. Copper indium gallium selenium solar cells involve the preparation of many layers of thin film materials, the preparation of each layer of materials will have an impact on the performance of the cell. In this paper, the synthesis process and growth mechanism of buffer material CdS thin films by chemical bath deposition were studied. The preparation of CdS thin films by chemical bath deposition mainly involves two mechanisms: ion-by-ion and cluster-by-cluster;, which have different physical properties. The change of conditions (such as temperature, concentration, pH value, deposition time, etc.) will have a great influence on the growth rate, surface morphology, crystal structure and optical properties of the films. Because the influence of reactant concentration and pH value has been reported in the literature, the influence of deposition temperature and time on the film properties has been selected in this paper. CdS thin films were deposited at 60oC (70oC) 80oC (90oC) at different time and characterized by SEM,XRD and OT. The band gap was calculated according to the Urbach formula. With the increase of deposition temperature, the growth rate of the films increases until the thickness reaches saturation, and then the thickness of the films will be reduced further because of denudation. It is suggested that the ion-by-ion mechanism dominates the growth of the films at first, and that the cluster-by-cluster mechanism controls the reaction with time. A reasonable explanation is given for the lifetime of the machine from the aspects of surface morphology, crystal structure, band gap value and so on. In addition, although copper indium gallium selenium solar cells still have great potential for development in the next few years, due to the relatively small distribution of indium in the crust, it is bound to be limited in the end. Copper, zinc, tin and sulfur (Cu2ZnSnS4) thin films, similar to copper indium gallium selenium (CuInxGa1 xSe2) films, are attracting extensive attention in laboratory. They have the same chalcopyrite crystal structure and similar photoelectric properties. The direct band gap of copper, zinc, tin and sulfur thin films is 1.4ev 1. 5 ev.The basic elements in the films are widely distributed in the earth's crust and are nontoxic. At present, CZTS solar cells with an efficiency of 6.77% have been prepared by co-evaporation method. Therefore, this thesis has also made some preliminary exploration in the preparation of CZTS thin films by non-vacuum method. Metal precursors were synthesized by Sol Gel method, annealed in hydrogen atmosphere and finally vulcanized to obtain CZTS films.
【学位授予单位】:中国科学技术大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2011
【分类号】:TM914.42

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相关博士学位论文 前1条

1 黎兵;CdS/CdTe多晶薄膜及其化合物半导体太阳电池的研究[D];四川大学;2004年



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