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农业、人口与市

发布时间:2019-01-11 08:57  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:波士坦的"新人口论"是西方经济史领域研究中世纪经济的一个非常有影响的理论,20世纪70年代末已经遭受过很多批评。批评者认为,它对同时期整个欧洲经济没有普遍的说服力,但是并没有指出其不足的原因所在。本文认为,如果将"新人口论"拿来检验中国传统社会、尤其检验中国清朝"康乾"时期的人地关系时,就会发现"新人口论"将面临崩溃的危险。人口因素的确是前近代社会经济发生长时段波动的关键性因素之一,但不是唯一的、甚至不是至关重要的因素;单纯从经济学的角度看,市场因素也同样重要。中西方传统社会因社会经济结构不同,市场机制也不一样。中国主要以"自然生成"的市场为主;西欧则以"法权驱动"的市场占多数,这样的市场会造成市场权的竞争。正是市场权的竞争加剧了人口变化的力度,否则,单纯的人口数量不足以造成经济出现周期性波动。如果将人口因素与市场因素合到一起,那么,"新人口论"就更有说服力了。
[Abstract]:Bostin's "New population Theory" is a very influential theory in the field of western economic history, which has been criticized in the late 1970s. Critics say it was unconvincing for the European economy as a whole over the same period, but did not point to the reasons for its shortcomings. This paper holds that if the "new population theory" is used to test the traditional Chinese society, especially the relationship between the people and the land during the "Kang and Qian" period of the Qing Dynasty, it will be found that the "new population theory" will face the danger of collapse. The population factor is indeed one of the key factors of the long term fluctuation of the social economy in the pre-modern times, but it is not the only or even the most important factor, and the market factor is equally important from the angle of economics. Chinese and western traditional society because of the social and economic structure, market mechanism is not the same. China is mainly a "naturally generated" market, while Western Europe is dominated by a "legal-driven" market, which will result in competition for market power. It is the competition of market power that intensifies the change of population, otherwise, the quantity of population is not enough to cause the cyclical fluctuation of economy. New demographics are more persuasive if demographic and market factors are combined.
【作者单位】: 天津师范大学欧洲经济社会发展研究中心;
【基金】:国家社科基金资助项目,批准号为10BSS007
【分类号】:C924.2

【参考文献】

相关期刊论文 前6条

1 罗肇前;全国统一市场形成于19世纪初——兼论明清手工业和商品经济的发展[J];东南学术;2002年03期

2 谢丰斋;12—14世纪英国小城镇兴起初探[J];世界历史;2002年04期

3 马克W,

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