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试析特鲁多的“公正社会”

发布时间:2019-01-11 12:57  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】: 加拿大是一个多民族、多种族的多元文化国家。在两大立国民族——英裔和法裔共同生活的广袤领土上,随着越来越多的其他族裔移民定居加拿大,民族和种族问题成为加拿大政治和社会生活中的一个十分棘手的问题。自上世纪四五十年代以来,法裔和英裔矛盾加剧,魁北克分离运动高涨;西方资本主义国家在经过战后的“黄金发展期”后出现滞胀现象。面临如此众多的问题,如何建立一个和谐的多元文化社会,是加拿大政治家亟待解决的重大问题。1968年皮埃尔·埃利奥特·特鲁多出任联邦政府总理,试图以“公正社会”蓝图来描绘加拿大的未来。本文拟就特鲁多任职16年中,在诸多领域围绕构建“公正社会”的重大政策的制定和实施来探讨其得失。 本文主要由引言、正文和结语组成: 引言,关于本文的选题意义和国内外研究动态。 第一部分,特鲁多“公正社会”理念概述。这一部分重点介绍特鲁多的成长经历和“公正社会”理念的发展形成过程。 第二部分,语言和文化政策。主要从《官方语言法案》和多元文化主义政策入手。《官方语言法案》提高了法语的地位,暂时缓和了法裔和英裔加拿大人之间的尖锐矛盾;特鲁多政府采用多元文化主义政策繁荣了加拿大的文化,同时又使各民族保持其独特的文化传统。 第三部分,《权利和自由宪章》。《1982年宪法法》的颁布使加拿大拥有了第一部真正意义上的宪法,而《权利和自由宪章》的加入使公民的基本权利和自由得到法律上的确认。《权利和自由宪章》也成为宪法中最为重要的部分。 第四部分,经济政策。以1975年的工资物价管制和1980年的国家能源计划为例,分析联邦政府是如何应对经济危机带来的通货膨胀和高失业问题的;特鲁多政府如何与阿尔伯达省政府就能源问题达成协议,避免国际油价对加拿大的冲击的。 结语。对特鲁多“公正社会”纲领的实施加以总结,肯定特鲁多为加拿大作出的贡献,同时也指出其政策中的不足之处。
[Abstract]:Canada is a multi-national, multi-racial and multi-cultural country. In the vast territory where the two founding nations, British and French, live together, as more and more other ethnic immigrants settle in Canada, the issue of nationality and race has become a very difficult issue in Canadian political and social life. Since the 1940s and 1950s, the conflicts between French and British have intensified, Quebec secession movement has been on the rise, and the phenomenon of stagflation has appeared in western capitalist countries after the "golden development period" after the war. Faced with so many problems, how to build a harmonious multicultural society is a major problem for Canadian politicians. In 1968, Pierre Eliot Trudeau became prime minister of the federal government. An attempt was made to map Canada's future with a "just society" blueprint. In his 16 years in office, this paper attempts to discuss the gains and losses of Trudeau in many fields, focusing on the formulation and implementation of major policies to build a "just society". This paper mainly consists of introduction, text and conclusion: introduction, the significance of this topic and domestic and foreign research trends. The first part is an overview of Trudeau's concept of a just society. This part focuses on Trudeau's growth experience and the formation of the concept of a just society. The second part, language and cultural policy. Mainly from the official language Act and multiculturalism policy. The official language Act improved the status of French, temporarily eased the sharp contradiction between French and British Canadians; Trudeau's policy of multiculturalism has prospered Canadian culture while preserving its unique cultural traditions. Part three, the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The enactment of the Constitution Act 1982 gave Canada the first true constitution, The addition of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms makes the fundamental rights and freedoms of citizens legally recognized. The Charter of Rights and Freedoms also becomes the most important part of the Constitution. The fourth part, economic policy. Take wage price controls in 1975 and the National Energy Plan in 1980 as examples to analyze how the federal government has responded to the inflation and high unemployment caused by the economic crisis; How the Trudeau government reached an agreement with the Alberta government on energy to avoid the impact of international oil prices on Canada. Conclusion This paper summarizes the implementation of Trudeau's "just Society" program, affirms Trudeau's contribution to Canada, and points out the inadequacies of his policy.
【学位授予单位】:河北师范大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2009
【分类号】:K711.52

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