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自我肯定对社会排斥者归属需求的影响

发布时间:2018-09-14 20:54  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:社会排斥是指个体被其他人或某个社会团体所拒绝,个体的关系需求和归属需求的满足遭到阻碍的现象和过程。社会排斥相关研究表明,排斥过程中被排斥者的归属需求会受损,而归属需求是人类的一种基本需求,如果它得不到满足,将会引起个体一系列认知、情绪和行为上的消极反应。以往研究中社会排斥对排斥者归属需求的影响涉及较少。Williams和Sommer的研究发现,实验过程中要求被试主动执行排斥的操作是很困难的;Sommer等人的研究发现排斥者的排斥动机是多样的,有的研究表明排斥会使排斥者对被排斥者的控制感和力量感增强;但是Williams的研究发现,被排斥者和排斥者在排斥过程中都报告自身归属感受损;综上所述,排斥他人之后,即使排斥者最终获得了对被排斥者的控制,但他们也牺牲了某种程度的同伴关系和安全关系。据此推测,社会排斥可能也会使排斥者的归属感受损,归属需求增强。自我肯定是指当个体受到威胁时,通过肯定与威胁无关领域中的自我价值,使自我体系恢复平衡,维持自我整体性的一种心理防御机制。当个体自身归属感受损时,个体可以通过自我肯定的方式维持自我整体性,降低自身的归属需求。近期有关自我肯定的研究也发现,当个体肯定自身重要的价值或特质时,会产生更多积极的他人导向的感觉,如爱和连接的感觉,而归属需求的本质就是寻求和维持与他人或其他团体的连接,个体也可以通过自我肯定的方式增强连接感,降低自身的归属需求。表达性特质和能动性特质是描述个体自我的两个基本维度,研究表明个体可以通过对自身的表达性和能动性特质进行肯定的方法来肯定个体自我的价值。因此在本实验中,我们通过改进经典的放逐排斥法,让排斥者自主选择是否主动排斥,来探究社会排斥过程中,排斥者归属需求的变化及对排斥者的表达性特质和能动性特质进行自我肯定是否会影响他们的归属需求。实验一探究排斥他人之后,排斥者归属需求的变化;实验二探究表达性自我肯定对排斥者归属需求的影响;实验三探究能动性自我肯定对排斥者归属需求的影响。实验一的结果表明:排斥他人之后,排斥者的归属需求增强;实验二的结果表明:排斥者对自身的表达性特质进行自我肯定后,其归属需求降低;实验三的结果表明:排斥者对自身的能动性特质进行自我肯定后,其归属需求降低。综上,可得到如下结论:社会排斥使排斥者的归属需求增强,排斥者通过肯定自身的表达性和能动性特质均可降低自身的归属需求;而这其中的机制可能是排斥他人之后,排斥者的自我概念受损,从而引起排斥者归属需求增强,而排斥者通过自我肯定来肯定自我价值,恢复受损的自我概念,缓解自我体系受到威胁而引起的消极反应,有效降低排斥者的归属需求;也可能是自我肯定使排斥者意识到自我以外他们真正关注的是什么,促使其自我超越,形成了更多他人导向的积极情感,如爱和连接的感觉。
[Abstract]:Social exclusion refers to the phenomenon and process in which an individual is rejected by another person or a social group and the satisfaction of the relationship needs and belonging needs of the individual is hindered. Previous studies have shown that social exclusion has less impact on rejection needs. Williams and Sommer found that it is difficult to ask subjects to actively perform rejection during the experiment; Sommer et al. found rejection motivation There are a variety of studies that show that rejection enhances the sense of control and power of the rejected; but Williams'study found that both rejected and rejected people report loss of belonging during rejection; in summary, after rejection, even if the rejected person eventually gains control of the rejected person, he does. We also sacrifice a certain degree of peer relations and security relations. It is speculated that social exclusion may also impair the sense of belonging and enhance the need for belonging of the excluded. Psychological defense mechanisms. When an individual's sense of belonging is impaired, he or she can maintain self-integrity and reduce his or her need for belonging through self-affirmation. Recent studies on self-affirmation have also found that when an individual affirms an important value or trait of himself or herself, he or she produces more positive other-oriented feelings, such as love and connection. The essence of belonging needs is to seek and maintain the connection with others or other groups. Individuals can also enhance the sense of connection and reduce their own belonging needs through self-affirmation. Expressive and dynamic characteristics are two basic dimensions of describing individual self. Research shows that individuals can express themselves through self-expression. Therefore, in this experiment, by improving the classical method of banishment and exclusion, we let the excluded choose whether to actively exclude, to explore the change of the excluded person's attributive needs and the self-expression and dynamic characteristics of the excluded person in the process of social exclusion. Experiments 1 explored the change in rejection needs after rejection; 2 explored the effect of expressive self-affirmation on rejection needs; and 3 explored the effect of motivational self-affirmation on rejection needs. The result of Experiment 2 shows that the rejector's attribution demand decreases after self-affirmation of his own expressive characteristics; the result of Experiment 3 shows that the rejector's attribution demand decreases after self-affirmation of his own initiative characteristics. The excluder's need for belonging is strengthened, and the excluder's need for belonging can be reduced by affirming his own expressive and dynamic characteristics; and the mechanism may be that after excluding others, the excluder's self-concept is impaired, thus causing the excluder's need for belonging to be strengthened, while the excluder affirms his self-worth and restores himself through self-affirmation. It may also be that self-affirmation makes the excluded realize what they really care about outside of themselves, promotes their self-transcendence, and creates more positive emotions, such as love and connection, directed by others.
【学位授予单位】:西南大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2015
【分类号】:B848

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