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大学生自我概念与就业压力的关系研究

发布时间:2019-01-09 14:09
【摘要】:本文旨在探索大学生就业压力的实际状况,明晰其与自我概念之间的关系,以求为缓解大学生就业压力提供新的思路和方法。本研究使用问卷调查法,以我国学者陈宇红编制的《大学生就业压力问卷》和美国Fitts于1965年编制由我国学者林邦杰修订的第三版《田纳西自我概念量表》为研究工具,随机选取四川一所高校的专科毕业生、本科毕业生、研究生毕业生中的700名学生为被试进行调查研究。主要研究结论如下:(1)大多数大学生就业压力水平中等。男女大学生就业压力差异并不显著(P0.05);专科生就业压力总分及职业素质与竞争、求职竞争、自我认知与定位、就业心理预期四个维度显著高于本科生和研究生(P0.05),而在缺少求职帮助和专业供求矛盾维度各学历阶段并无差异;单亲家庭大学生的就业压力显著高于双亲家庭(P0.001),并在职业素质与评价、自我认知与定位和就业心理预期维度表现出相同的趋势;不同家庭经济地位大学生的就业压力差异不显著(P0.05);不同实践经历大学生就业压力差异非常显著(P0.001),缺乏实践经历大学生就业压力显著高于中等和丰富实践经历的大学生(P0.001);是否为独生子女在大学生就业压力上差异显著并不显著(P0.05);是否学生干部在大学生就业压力上差异显著(P0.05),非学生干部的就业压力显著高于学生干部。(2)大学生自我概念水平总体偏高。男女生在自我概念上差异并不明显(P0.05);在学历阶段上,专科生的自我概念水平显著低于本科生和研究生(P0.001),社会自我表现出同样的趋势,同时,本科生的社会自我又显著低于专科生(P0.001);单亲家庭的自我概念显著低于双亲家庭(P0.001)。(3)大学生自我概念与就业压力呈显著负相关(P0.01),说明两者之间关系密切,且自我概念对就业压力具有一定的预测作用。本研究支持了拉扎勒斯的认知评价理论,即个体的认知对就业压力的体验具有较强的影响力,积极并且高度的认知评价能够削弱就业压力体验,消极并较低的认知评价能够增强就业压力体验。在自我概念各维度中,社会自我、心理自我、家庭自我、生理自我和自我认同五个因子联合解释就业压力的34%。因此,高校心理健康教育工作者应该改变大学生认知观念,增强学生自我价值感;引导学生建立更为完善积极的自我概念;区别对待不同群体大学生就业压力,实现精准帮扶。
[Abstract]:The purpose of this paper is to explore the actual situation of college students' employment pressure and to clarify the relationship between it and their self-concept in order to provide new ideas and methods for alleviating the employment pressure of college students. In this study, a questionnaire was used to investigate the college students' employment stress questionnaire compiled by Chen Yuhong, a Chinese scholar, and the third edition of Tennessee Self-Concepts scale, revised by Chinese scholar Lin Bangjie in 1965 by Fitts of the United States. A random survey was conducted among 700 college graduates, undergraduate graduates and graduate graduates from a Sichuan university. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) the employment pressure of most college students is moderate. There was no significant difference in employment pressure between male and female college students (P0.05); The total score of employment pressure, professional quality and competition, job search competition, self-cognition and orientation, employment psychological expectation of junior college students were significantly higher than those of undergraduates and graduate students (P0.05). But in the lack of help and professional supply and demand contradictions between the different academic levels and there is no difference; The employment pressure of college students from single-parent families was significantly higher than that of two-parent families (P0.001), and showed the same trend in the dimensions of professional quality and evaluation, self-cognition and orientation and employment psychological expectation. There was no significant difference in employment pressure among college students with different family economic status (P0.05). The difference of employment pressure among college students with different practical experiences is very significant (P0.001). The employment pressure of college students who lack practical experience is significantly higher than that of students with medium and rich practical experience (P0.001). Whether the only child is the only child in the employment pressure of college students is not significantly different (P0.05); Whether the student cadres have significant difference in the employment pressure of college students (P0.05), the employment pressure of non-student cadres is significantly higher than that of student cadres. (2) the level of self-concept of college students is on the high side. There was no significant difference in self-concept between male and female students (P0.05). The level of self-concept of junior college students was significantly lower than that of undergraduates and graduate students (P0.001), and the social self showed the same trend. At the same time, the social self of undergraduate students was significantly lower than that of junior college students (P0.001). The self-concept of single-parent family was significantly lower than that of two-parent family (P0.001). (3). There was a significant negative correlation between self-concept and employment pressure (P0.01), which indicated that there was a close relationship between the self-concept and employment pressure. And self-concept can predict employment pressure. This study supports Lazarus's theory of cognitive evaluation, that is, individual cognition has a strong influence on the experience of employment stress, and positive and high cognitive evaluation can weaken the experience of employment stress. Negative and low cognitive evaluation can enhance the experience of employment stress. In each dimension of self-concept, social self, psychological self, family self, physical self and self-identity combined to explain the employment pressure. Therefore, college mental health educators should change students' cognitive concept, enhance students' sense of self-worth, guide students to establish more perfect and positive self-concept, treat different groups of college students' employment pressure, and achieve accurate help.
【学位授予单位】:西华师范大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2017
【分类号】:B844.2

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