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注意状态和资源分配对错误再认的影响研究

发布时间:2019-01-11 09:37  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:错误记忆,又称虚假记忆,是指人们会错误地回忆起从未见过的事物或从未发生过的情景。错误记忆是近年来有关记忆研究的一个重点,研究错误记忆有助于拓宽记忆研究的领域,加深对记忆过程和机制的理解。学者们针对错误记忆设计了多种范式,常用的有Loftus的误导信息干扰范式、KK范式、想象膨胀范式、DRM范式、类别联想研究范式和无意识知觉研究范式等。其中DRM范式是一种广泛应用的可在实验室环境中诱发可靠错误记忆效应的实验范式。错误记忆受多种因素的影响,这些因素包括预警、词表长度、呈现时间、呈现方式、呈现通道、学习次数、加工水平、分散注意、个体差异等。在分析了错误记忆相关研究后,拟采用DRM范式,考察注意状态对错误再认成绩的影响。实验一中采用混合设计,操纵注意状态和项目类型两个变量,探究不同注意状态对错误记忆的影响,其中注意状态为被试间变量,分为集中注意、较低的分散注意和较高的分散注意三个水平;,项目类型为被试内变量,分为学习过项目和关键诱饵两个水平。实验二操纵任务类型和项目类型两个变量,任务类型包括记忆任务、颜色判断和词性判断三种不同任务,为被试间变量;项目类型分为学习过项目和关键诱饵,为被试内变量,研究无意识加工对错误记忆的影响。结果发现,实验一中从集中注意状态到高分散状态,随着注意集中水平的下降,被试对于关键诱饵的反应时间逐渐增加,注意水平和反应时呈负相关。实验二中记忆任务的反应时大于颜色判断和词性判断任务,被试对词语的加工水平越深,反应时越短。由以上实验结果,可得出以下结论:1.对于错误再认来说,注意分散会使再认反应时增加。2.错误再认并不需要以对词语的有意加工为前提,即使在无意识的情况下,错误记忆也可能发生。
[Abstract]:False memory, also known as false memory, refers to people who mistakenly recall things they have never seen or what never happened. False memory is an important part of memory research in recent years. The study of false memory is helpful to broaden the field of memory research and deepen the understanding of memory process and mechanism. Scholars have designed a variety of paradigms for false memory, such as Loftus's misleading information interference paradigm, KK paradigm, imagination expansion paradigm, DRM paradigm, category association paradigm and unconscious perception paradigm. DRM paradigm is a widely used experimental paradigm that can induce reliable false memory effect in laboratory environment. False memory is affected by many factors, such as early warning, vocabulary length, presentation time, presentation mode, presentation channel, learning times, processing level, distraction, individual differences, etc. After analyzing the related research of false memory, we propose to use DRM paradigm to investigate the effect of attention state on error recognition scores. In experiment one, we used mixed design to manipulate the two variables of attention state and item type to explore the effect of different attention states on false memory, in which the attention state was a variable among the subjects, which was divided into focused attention. Lower distraction and higher distraction; In 2006, the item type was the internal variable, which was divided into two levels: the study item and the key bait. Experiment 2 manipulates two variables: task type and item type. Task types include memory task, color judgment and part of speech judgment. The items were divided into study items and key decoys, which were the variables within the subjects to study the effects of unconscious processing on false memory. The results showed that the reaction time for the key bait increased gradually with the decrease of the attention concentration level, and there was a negative correlation between the attention level and the reaction time. In experiment 2, the reaction time of memory task was larger than that of color judgment and part of speech judgment. The deeper the processing level of words was, the shorter the reaction time was. From the above experimental results, we can draw the following conclusions: 1. For false recognition, attention dispersion increases recognition time by. 2. False recognition does not require intentional processing of words, and false memory may occur even in unconscious situations.
【学位授予单位】:南京师范大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2016
【分类号】:B842.3


本文编号:2406979


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