贞节牌坊_明清妇女贞节观探析

发布时间:2016-10-31 19:56

  本文关键词:明清妇女贞节观探析,由笔耕文化传播整理发布。


明清妇女贞节观探析

明清妇女贞节观探析

自从人类进入文明时代以来,贞节观念便伴随人类生活的左右。然而,如同历史演进的多姿多彩一样,贞节观念的变化也是饱经风霜,处于不断演变的过程之中的。在中国历史中,贞节观念的初始阶段并不只针对于女性,而相反一定层面是对男性权势阶层的限制。那么,为什么随着岁月的变迁,贞节观尤其是到明清时期,却逐渐演化成只针对女性的极端要求呢?这中间是一个怎样的历程?明清贞节观对女性的极端要求具有哪些特点,理由在哪里?明清贞节观强化有哪些影响?而明清士大夫内部又有怎样的争论?本文从贞节两字入手,对贞节观念在中国历史上的发展脉络进行梳理,进而对明清贞节观的极端强化做出相关研究,并希望能最终对当代建设社会主义新型贞节观做出有意 义的贡献。在中国传统社会中,妇女贞节观念随着时间的推进而不断演变,在意识形态领域逐步趋向片面化、狭义化,在空间数量方面却变得全面化、多样化。尤其到明清时期,妇女贞节观念发展到了宗教化的地步,贞节观念跟以往相比发生了重大的变化:贞节观念不仅指道德品性的良好而且更主要的是指生理上的不失身;妇女守节人数增加;守节方式多样化且民族范围和地域范围进一步扩大;守节的出于道德是非观念的必定选择。总之,在明清两朝五百多年间,妇女的贞节观念始终处于一种不断强化的状态。而这种极端强化的因子又来源于各个层面。首先是统治阶级出于政府统治利益的需要不断强化贞节观念;其次是宗法家族为了自身的利益,从教育、表彰、惩罚等措施方面加强了对妇女贞节的管理;同时,道德教育上,明清时期崇尚理学“饿死事小失节事大”的理念,并在女教的宣讲下对妇女贞节观念进一步加强;再者社会节烈风气盛行、贞节堂的出现以及妇女自身对贞节观念的认同都极大的推动了此一时期节烈思想的盛行。值得注意的是,明清时期在妇女贞节观念不断强化的同时,士大夫阶层却并不死板一块,针对守节和反对守节的争论此起彼伏,并相应地反映到文学作品的领域。对明清文学作品的探讨,不失为从一个侧面来了解此时期贞节观念的一种途径。当然,所谓的争论只是主流意识形态中的小小暗涌,不能影响明清妇女贞节观念强化的总体趋势。明清时期贞节观念的强化对当时妇女的生产、生活,无论是从积极方面还是消极方面来说都产生了很大的影响。积极方面表现在:保护了不愿改嫁的妇女、推动了女性文化的发展、抑制淫乱之风;消极方面表现在:造成妇女生活条件的恶劣、家庭地位低下、精神痛苦、性压抑,禁锢了女性的创造力,影响了后世妇女的观念和社会地位。与此同时,我们还应该看到,明清时期妇女的贞节观念还影响着今时今日的人们。明清时期的贞节观念与社会主义的贞节观念既有相同的地方更有着很大的区别。因此,研究明清时期妇女的贞节观念在今天来讲仍然具有极大的现实意 义。

【Abstract】 The idea of chastity has been part of human society since the civilization. However, just as history progresses, such ideas have undergone through constant changes. In Chinese history, at the beginning, the idea of chastity was not specific to the female, but on the contrary, it laid limit to the privileged class of males to some extent. Then, with the evolution of history, why did the idea of chastity change into such an extreme that it was specific to the female, especially during the Ming and Qing dynasties? How did it evolve? What were the features of the extreme demand of chastity from women during the Ming and Qing Dynasties, and what were the reasons? How did the reinforced idea of chastity of that period influence the society? More over, what did the scholar-officials of that period argue about that issue? Starting from the chastity, this thesis traces the changes that the chastity idea has undergone, and then examines the extreme reinforcement of such idea during the Ming and Qing dynasties, and it is also expected that this thesis may contribute to the formation of socialist new chastity idea in the modern time.In traditional Chinese society, the chastity idea for the female has changes along the time, which displays the features of one-sidedness, narrowness in the ideology, but shows comprehensiveness and diversity in space and quantity. Especially during the Ming and Qing dynasties, the chastity idea for women even evolved into a religion, which had changed fundamentally from before: the chastity not only referred to the goodness of morality but also the physical virgin, the number of women who preserved chastity after the death of their husbands increased, and the related approaches diversified and extended in nationality and scope, and such a choice was the natural result of the mores. In conclusion, during the Ming and Qing dynasties, which lasted more than 500 years, the chastity idea for women had been constantly reinforced.The forces behind this extreme reinforcement come from all levels. First of all, the ruling class continuously intensified the chastity idea for the sake of the interest of government; secondly, patriarchal family strengthened the control over the chastity idea by means of education, award, punishment, and other ways so as to protect its own benefits; at the same time, as regards morality teaching, the Ming and Qing dynasties upheld the Neo-Confucianism, which emphasized the notion that "Virgin is a much more significant matter than foods" and further stressed the teaching of chastity idea for the women; another fact is that the prevalent idea of chastity was strengthened by the popularity of sacrifice for chastity and the appearance of Chastity Halls.A point worth noting is that, while the idea of chastity for women was constantly reinforced during the Ming and Qing dynasties, the scholar-officials did not entirely advocate such idea and had debated a lot about the chastity and anti-chastity, which were reflected in literature. Therefore, it is also another good approach to understanding the chastity idea of that period through the literary works. Yet, the so-called debate is just an invisible wave of the dominant ideology, and shall not influence the main trend of reinforcement of the idea of chastity for women.The reinforcement of the idea of chastity had exerted great impact on the productivity and life, both from the positive aspect and the negative. The positive aspect is reflected as: the women who did now want to remarry were protected, the female culture was promoted and the promiscuity was curbed; while the negative aspect is that: the living condition for women were worsened, the status for women in family was low, they were mentally tortured, their natural sex desire was repressed, and their creativity was constrained, all of which influenced the thoughts and social status of the female of following generations.At the same time, another point shall be noted that the idea of chastity for women still influence the people at contemporary time. The chastity idea of the Qing and Ming dynasties shares many similarities with the socialist idea and nevertheless differs a lot. Therefore, the research into the chastity idea of the Qing and Ming dynasties still has great realistic significance.

【关键词】 明清时期; 妇女; 贞节观念;
【Key words】 Ming and Qing dynasties; women; idea of chastity;

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  •   本文关键词:明清妇女贞节观探析,由笔耕文化传播整理发布。



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