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北宋黄河中下游治理若干问题研究

发布时间:2019-01-11 18:40  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】: 时至北宋,黄河水患较之前代更为突出。在水灾救护方面,面对黄河中下游水灾的频繁发生,北宋王朝也是积极采取多种举措,以此来应对水灾所造成的损害,努力恢复和稳定正常的社会生产与秩序。另一方面,则因频繁水灾及治理而引发财富的大量损耗、资金的大量投入、人力的大量占用及伤亡,这无疑也造成北方经济的严重滞缓,从而成为促使北宋经济重心南移的一个重要因素。 在北宋黄河中下游的治理中,其治理活动的开展与治河策略的实施,又往往与北宋政治、军事诸多方面的发展紧密交织在一起,这也在一定程度上影响到治河举措的正确实施与治河活动的顺利开展。宋廷内部士大夫之间围绕治河活动的进行所产生的诸多争论,制约了治河举措效果的正常发挥,削弱了治河的力度;而在北宋期间,尤其是北宋中后期的军事发展中,治河方略的制定与实施,也更多地与其军事战略的制定交织在一起,从而使黄河中下游的治理成为北宋军事战略中的重要一环,呈现出与前代乃至后世明显不同的一大特色。 北宋时期黄河中下游的频繁决溢,也引发黄河下游河道的重大变迁。在北宋黄河中下游的河道治理中,都水监等机构的设立,在治河实践中一度发挥了其重要作用。在治河活动的实际开展中,宋廷也通过征调士兵、科调民夫、雇募民夫等途径来大力征集力役,以组织兵夫采伐、科征、政府调拨及购买等形式多方筹集物料,并逐步建立了一套较为完备的官员、河夫奖惩机制,从而在一定程度上保证了河役的正常开展。 在对黄河中下游的漕运治理中,北宋王朝通过对黄河、汴河及北方诸水的开发与利用,使黄河中下游水系在水上运输方面发挥了重要作用;在农田水利建设中,通过引黄灌溉、引黄淤灌等措施的实施,从而对北方地区的农业发展发挥了极大的推动作用。尤其是神宗年间引黄淤灌活动的开展,不仅在技术方面多有创新,其规模在中国古代史的发展中也达到了一个相当的高度。
[Abstract]:From the time to the Northern Song Dynasty, the Yellow River flood was more prominent than the previous generation. In the aspect of flood rescue, in the face of frequent floods in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, the Northern Song Dynasty also took various measures to deal with the damage caused by the floods and to restore and stabilize normal social production and order. On the other hand, because of frequent floods and management, the loss of wealth, the massive investment of capital, the massive occupation of human resources and the casualties have undoubtedly led to a serious slowdown in the economy of the North. Therefore, it became an important factor to promote the economic center of the Northern Song Dynasty to move southward. In the management of the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River in the Northern Song Dynasty, the development of its governance activities and the implementation of the river control strategy are often closely intertwined with the development of politics and military affairs in the Northern Song Dynasty. To a certain extent, this also affects the correct implementation of river control measures and the smooth development of river control activities. There are many disputes among scholars and officials in Song Dynasty, which restrict the effect of river control and weaken the dynamics of river control. During the Northern Song Dynasty, especially in the military development of the middle and late Northern Song Dynasty, the formulation and implementation of the river control strategy were more intertwined with the formulation of its military strategy. Thus, the governance of the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River becomes an important part of the military strategy of the Northern Song Dynasty, showing a distinct difference from the previous and even later generations. The frequent overflows of the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River in the Northern Song Dynasty also led to major changes in the lower reaches of the Yellow River. In the course of river regulation in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River in the Northern Song Dynasty, the establishment of water supervision and other institutions has once played an important role in the practice of river control. In the actual development of river control activities, the Song Dynasty also mobilized soldiers, civil servants, and civil servants to mobilize military forces to organize the harvesting, collection, allocation and purchase of materials by the government, and so on. And gradually set up a set of relatively complete officials, river husband reward and punishment mechanism, thus to a certain extent to ensure the normal development of river service. In the treatment of water transportation in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, the Northern Song Dynasty played an important role in water transportation through the development and utilization of the Yellow River, Bianhe River and all the waters in the north. In the construction of farmland and water conservancy, the implementation of irrigation by diversion of the Yellow River and silt irrigation of the Yellow River has played a great role in promoting the development of agriculture in the northern region. Especially in Shenzong years, the development of Yellow River silt irrigation activities not only in the technical aspects of innovation, its scale in the development of the ancient history of China has reached a considerable height.
【学位授予单位】:河北大学
【学位级别】:博士
【学位授予年份】:2007
【分类号】:K244

【引证文献】

相关硕士学位论文 前1条

1 任贵松;北宋黄河埽所研究[D];河南大学;2011年



本文编号:2407338


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