两宋白银货币化研究

发布时间:2019-05-16 03:53
【摘要】:两宋白银货币化是一个有重要研究价值的课题。该课题的研究,对于深化中国古代货币史、宋代经济史的研究,探讨交换的发展与货币演变的关系,把握古代商品经济发展的脉络,均有重要意义。 近半个世纪以来,在马克思主义理论指导下,两宋白银货币化问题的研究取得了大量成果。李埏先生在生产与交换的宏观视野中,把马克思主义货币理论与中国古代货币发展的实际结合起来,科学地阐述了判定白银货币化的标准和方法,否定了唐代曾用银作货币的观点,揭示了唐代的交换水平与白银货币化的关系,并对北宋初四川白银短缺与创行交子的关系进行了深入探讨,为深化该课题的研究奠定了坚实的基础,指明了方向。近年来,李槐、萧清、马力、高聪明等也结合两宋商品经济的发展情况,对白银生产、使用及货币化问题进行了研究。于是,学术界在两宋白银货币化的物质基础、货币化取决于商品经济的发展等方面逐步形成共识。而下述问题则日益凸现出来,成为货币史学科前沿的重要问题:白银货币化的前提是什么?两宋间白银何时、如何获得价值尺度和流通手段职能,完成从商品向货币的转变?交换的发展如何使白银变成货币? 论文分为“商品银流通的发展:白银货币化的重要前提”、“白银货币化的标志之一:价值尺度职能的获得”、“白银货币化的标志之二:流通手段职能的获得”、“交换的发展:白银货币化的根本动因”等四个部分,试图就上述几个问题做出回答。论文的主要观点是: 白银货币化指的是白银从商品变成货币的过程,亦即白银获得价值尺度和流通手段职能的过程。两宋白银货币化的起点在神宗朝(1068~1085),经历了一个世纪的发展,至迟在孝宗朝(1163~1189)初步完成。神宗朝以前的白银是商品,而孝宗朝以后的白银获得了价值尺度和流通手段职能,变成了货币。白银货币化的根本动因是交换的发展。是交换的发展,需要白银充当货币,并赋予它
[Abstract]:The monetization of silver in the Song Dynasty is an important research topic. The study of this subject is of great significance to deepen the study of ancient Chinese monetary history and Song Dynasty economic history, to explore the relationship between the development of exchange and monetary evolution, and to grasp the context of the development of ancient commodity economy. In the past half century, under the guidance of Marxist theory, a lot of achievements have been made in the study of silver monetization in the Song Dynasty. In the macro vision of production and exchange, Mr. Li Yu combined Marxist monetary theory with the reality of monetary development in ancient China, and scientifically expounded the criteria and methods for judging the monetization of silver. This paper negates the viewpoint that silver was used as currency in Tang Dynasty, reveals the relationship between the exchange level of Tang Dynasty and the monetization of silver, and probes into the relationship between the shortage of silver in Sichuan and the Jiaozi of Chuangxing in the early Northern Song Dynasty. It lays a solid foundation and points out the direction for deepening the research of the subject. In recent years, Li Huai, Xiao Qing, horsepower and Gao Smart have also studied the production, use and monetization of silver in combination with the development of commodity economy in Song Dynasty. Therefore, the academic circles gradually reached a consensus on the material basis of silver monetization in the Song Dynasty, and monetization depended on the development of commodity economy. The following problems have become increasingly prominent and become an important issue at the forefront of the subject of monetary history: what is the premise of monetization of silver? When did silver in the Song Dynasty obtain the function of value scale and circulation means to complete the transformation from commodity to currency? How does the development of exchange turn silver into currency? The paper is divided into "the development of commodity silver circulation: an important prerequisite for silver monetization", "one of the symbols of silver monetization: the acquisition of value scale function", and "the second sign of silver monetization: the acquisition of circulation means function". The development of exchange: the fundamental motivation of silver monetization and other four parts try to answer the above questions. The main point of view of this paper is that silver monetization refers to the process of silver changing from commodity to currency, that is, the process of silver obtaining the value scale and the function of circulation means. The starting point of silver monetization in the Song Dynasty was the Shenzong Dynasty (1068 鈮,

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