清初新疆民族政策的演变

发布时间:2019-07-09 08:01
【摘要】:清朝新疆民族政策的确立经历了一个较长的历史过程,其中清初民族政策的调整与制定具有决定意义,并产生了十分深远的影响。这些政策虽然不可避免地带有一定的局限性,但是毕竟达到了封建社会的顶峰。本文拟在前人研究的基础上,立足于对清初新疆民族政策的总体把握,重点探讨清初民族政策的制定、调整、确立与实施的历史过程及其演变规律,分析其变化的原因,并对清初民族政策历史地位试加总结。 本文分为前言、正文和结语三部分。前言主要对本文的研究对象进行了时间、空间的界定。从宏观、微观两方面对有关清初新疆民族政策的研究成果进行了重点介绍,并阐明了本文的选题意义及所使用的基本史料。 正文以时间为线索按清朝统一新疆前、清朝初定新疆及清朝再次平定新疆叛乱并将新疆纳入清朝版图以后的顺序分三部分进行分析和论述: 第一部分为清朝统一前的新疆及其与清朝的关系。在这一部分中,首先对清朝统一前新疆地区“南回北准”的民族分布格局进行了叙述。接着分析了清朝统一前,其与新疆地区南北两路的关系,指出这一阶段清朝施政的重点在天山北路厄鲁特蒙古聚居区,主要实行的是以羁縻、怀柔为主的民族政策。 第二部分为清朝统一新疆及统一初的民族政策。本部分在对清朝统一新疆过程及在此过程中所采取的基本策略进行论述的基础上,结合统一初民族分布格局的变化情况,重点分析了这一阶段清朝民族政策的基本构想,指出对卫拉特蒙古“众建以分其势”,对回部羁縻统治仍是其民族政策的基本方针与重要内容。 第三部分为阿睦尔撒纳、大小和卓叛乱与清朝民族政策的调整与确立。首先论述了阿睦尔撒纳和大小和卓叛乱的过程并分析了清朝民族政策构想失败的原因。接着叙述了清朝平定叛乱的过程,并分析了清朝平定叛乱后对新疆天山南北两路政策调整的具体内容,认为清初在“因俗而治”的方针下结合新疆的实际情况,从政治体制、经济、宗教、法律制度等方面制定了一套适合新疆地区社会发展的民族政策。在政治体制上,清朝在新疆北部厄鲁特蒙古聚居区实行了札萨克制,在天山南部维吾尔族聚居区实行的是经过改革的伯克制,在天山东部汉族、回族聚居区实行的是与内地基本相同的府县制。在经济政策上,清朝在天山南北实行了一系列有利于新疆地区经济发展的政策,但与此同时清朝对天山南北两路
[Abstract]:The establishment of Xinjiang ethnic policy in Qing Dynasty experienced a long historical process, in which the adjustment and formulation of ethnic policy in the early Qing Dynasty had decisive significance and had a very far-reaching impact. Although these policies inevitably have certain limitations, but after all, they reached the peak of feudal society. On the basis of previous studies, based on the overall grasp of Xinjiang's ethnic policy in the early Qing Dynasty, this paper focuses on the historical process and evolution law of the formulation, adjustment, establishment and implementation of ethnic policy in the early Qing Dynasty, analyzes the reasons for its change, and summarizes the historical status of ethnic policy in the early Qing Dynasty. This paper is divided into three parts: preface, main body and conclusion. The preface mainly defines the time and space of the research object of this paper. This paper mainly introduces the research results of Xinjiang ethnic policy in the early Qing Dynasty from the macro and micro aspects, and expounds the significance of the selected topic and the basic historical materials used in this paper. The text takes time as the clue according to the Qing Dynasty before the unification of Xinjiang, the early Qing Dynasty and the Qing Dynasty to calm down the Xinjiang rebellion again and bring Xinjiang into the territory of the Qing Dynasty in three parts: the first part is Xinjiang before the unification of the Qing Dynasty and its relationship with the Qing Dynasty. In this part, first of all, the ethnic distribution pattern of "south to north" in Xinjiang before the unification of Qing Dynasty is described. Then it analyzes the relationship between the Qing Dynasty and the north and south roads of Xinjiang before the reunification of the Qing Dynasty, and points out that the focus of the Qing Dynasty administration in this stage is in the Urut Mongolian settlement area of the north road of Tianshan, and the ethnic policy of Jimi and Huairou is mainly carried out. The second part is the ethnic policy of the Qing Dynasty to unify Xinjiang and the beginning of reunification. On the basis of discussing the process of unification of Xinjiang in Qing Dynasty and the basic strategies adopted in this process, combined with the changes of ethnic distribution pattern in the early stage of unification, this part focuses on the analysis of the basic ideas of the ethnic policy of the Qing Dynasty in this stage, and points out that the rule of Jimi in Weilat Mongolia is still the basic policy and important content of its ethnic policy. The third part is the adjustment and establishment of the national policy of the Qing Dynasty. First of all, this paper discusses the process of Ajul Zana and the size and rebellion, and analyzes the reasons for the failure of the national policy conception of the Qing Dynasty. Then it describes the process of the Pingding rebellion in the Qing Dynasty, and analyzes the concrete contents of the adjustment of the policy between the north and the south of Tianshan in Xinjiang after the Pingding rebellion in the Qing Dynasty, and holds that under the principle of "ruling according to vulgarity" in the early Qing Dynasty, combined with the actual situation of Xinjiang, a set of ethnic policies suitable for the social development of Xinjiang was formulated from the aspects of political system, economy, religion, legal system and so on. In terms of political system, the Qing Dynasty exercised Zassa restraint in the Urut Mongolian settlement area in northern Xinjiang, and carried out the reformed Bo restraint in the Uygur settlement area in the south of Tianshan Mountain. In the eastern Tianshan Han nationality, the Hui nationality settlement area implemented the same prefectural and county system as in the mainland. In terms of economic policy, the Qing Dynasty carried out a series of policies conducive to the economic development of Xinjiang in the north and south of Tianshan, but at the same time, the Qing Dynasty made a series of policies on the north and south of Tianshan.
【学位授予单位】:陕西师范大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2006
【分类号】:K249.2

【引证文献】

相关硕士学位论文 前1条

1 倪萍丽;清代海南建置制度考[D];华东政法大学;2011年



本文编号:2511997

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