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明代士人对王安石变法评价的变化

发布时间:2019-01-10 13:17  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:王安石变法发生在北宋神宗熙宁、元丰年间,所以后来也被称为熙宁变法或是熙丰变法。变法内容针对当时政府入不敷出的实况,着重于理财。尽管王安石变法行进十六年后失败,但是王安石变法对北宋产生深远的影响,尤其是变法之后北宋内部两派分立,纠纷不断;徽宗权臣蔡京利用恢复变法的幌子为徽宗收刮天下膏脂,靖康之难后人们将北宋灭亡归于王安石变法。但是通过梳理史料,在明代出现了一部分著作高度赞扬王安石变法,为王安石辩诬,赞扬王安石变法的内容这种现象也有其背后深刻的社会根源。文章第一部分旨在论述王安石变法的内容,及其所取得成果,并对王安石本人的历史面貌进行描述,着重在王安石性格方面。原因在于北宋之后诸多文人对王安石的看法主要集中在王安石变法的内容、效果,以及王安石在变法过程中的性格问题。最后主要罗列宋元时期文人们对王安石及其变法的主要观点。文章第二部分是全文的主体,主要论述明代对王安石变法的观点出现的变化情况,主要包括王安石本人的性格、王安石变法的内容与探讨王安石变法失败的原因。从中可以看出明代士人对王安石变法再认识的特点,明代士人在对王安石变法进行再认识根基于明代所面临的社会问题。这些问题与北宋有着相似的一面,所以论及如何解决问题之时,王安石变法提供了一定的参考意义。文章第三部分则试图从发声者所处的时代去论述明代政府所面临的情况,从而更深入地去探究明代出现这种不同声音的原因。明代士人对于政府运作有着自己的看法,这种看法突破了以往儒家的义利之辩,更加重视国家的富强。因而在渴望国家富强的情况下赞同王安石变法的内容。文章的最后结论部分,指出明代处于一个大变革时期,明代士人也发出注重国富的声音,但是朝堂之上对这种声音置若罔闻。出现这种状况的原因在于,这种注重国富的声音本身也有一些缺陷,依旧秉持儒家的经典出发,并不符合当时所需。但是也不可否认,儒家文化也存在变化,这种变化最后也可以发展出对经济发展有利的思想,只不过这种自己发展的途径被西方殖民势力的入侵所打断。
[Abstract]:Wang Anshi reform took place in the Northern Song Dynasty Shenzong Xining, Yuan Feng years, so it was later known as Xining Reform or Xifeng Reform. The reform aimed at the fact that the government could not make ends meet at that time, focusing on financial management. Although Wang Anshi's reform failed after sixteen years of movement, it had a profound influence on the Northern Song Dynasty, especially the separation of the two factions in the Northern Song Dynasty after the reform, which resulted in constant disputes. Cai Jing, the minister of Huizong, took advantage of the cover of the restoration of the reform method for the Emperor Huizong to scrape the whole world. People attributed the death of the Northern Song Dynasty to Wang Anshi's reform after the hardship of Jing Kang. But through combing the historical data, in Ming Dynasty, there appeared some works that highly praised Wang Anshi's reform, defended the falsehood for Wang Anshi, praised the content of Wang Anshi's reform, and this phenomenon also had its profound social root behind it. The first part of the article aims to discuss the content of Wang Anshi's reform and its achievements, and describe the historical features of Wang Anshi, focusing on the personality of Wang Anshi. The reason is that after the Northern Song Dynasty, many scholars' views on Wang Anshi were mainly focused on the content, effect, and personality problems of Wang Anshi in the process of reform. Finally, the main list of the Song and Yuan dynasties literati on Wang Anshi and its reform of the main views. The second part of the article is the main body of the full text, mainly discusses the changes of the Ming Dynasty's views on Wang Anshi's reform, mainly including the personality of Wang Anshi himself, the content of Wang Anshi's reform and the reasons for the failure of Wang Anshi's reform. From this, we can see the characteristics of the scholars' reunderstanding of Wang Anshi's reform in Ming Dynasty, which is based on the social problems faced by the Ming Dynasty. These problems are similar to those of the Northern Song Dynasty, so Wang Anshi's reform provides some reference significance when it comes to how to solve the problems. In the third part, the author tries to discuss the situation of the government in Ming Dynasty from the era in which the speaker is living, so as to probe into the causes of the different voices in the Ming Dynasty. The scholars of the Ming Dynasty had their own views on the operation of the government, which broke through the Confucian argument of righteousness and interest and attached more importance to the prosperity and strength of the country. Therefore, in the case of longing for a strong and prosperous country, Wang Anshi agreed with the content of the reform. The last part of the article points out that the Ming Dynasty was in a period of great change, and the scholars of the Ming Dynasty also made the sound of paying attention to the wealth of the country, but it was ignored by the Chaotang. The reason for this situation is that the emphasis on national wealth has its own defects, still adhere to the Confucian classics, do not meet the needs of the time. But it is also undeniable that there are changes in Confucian culture, which can eventually develop ideas beneficial to economic development, but this way of development was interrupted by the invasion of Western colonial forces.
【学位授予单位】:东北师范大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2017
【分类号】:K248

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