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利用被动采样技术探究人为活动对南极和中国淡水中有机污染物的影响

发布时间:2018-06-06 10:54  文章来源:笔耕文化传播

  本文选题:人为活动 + 被动采样技术 ; 参考:《中国科学院大学(中国科学院广州地球化学研究所)》2017年博士论文


【摘要】:频繁的人为活动给环境带来了各种污染,其中以有机污染物最受到人们的关注。疏水性有机污染物,例如持久性有机污染物,因其长久性、生物可放大性、生物积累,容易长距离迁移等特点,对人类和环境带来潜在的危害。测量水中溶解态的有机污染物可以为评估水中生物甚至是人类的暴露提供十分有效的信息,为制定相关的控制水体污染措施提供基础数据。被动采样技术具有成本低,容易操作等优点,为建立全球水体有机污染物的监测网络提供了一个契机。在现有的被动采样器中,利用低密度聚乙烯膜为吸附相的采样器,因其价格低廉、重复性高、野外操作简单,被广泛认为是最适合测量水中有机污染物的被动采样器。本研究利用自主研发的被动采样装置,选择南极洲的内陆湖与我国水域作为采样点,验证采样装置的可行性,并测定其水体环境中典型溶解态有机污染物多环芳烃(polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,简称PAHs),分析其污染特征,验证人为活动对自然环境的影响。近年来,随着旅游业的快速发展以及密集的科学考察活动,一直被视为地球最后的净土的南极洲,有可能已被污染。南极内湖泊中的自由溶解态的∑PAH的浓度范围为14~360 ng L-1(中值:279 ng L-1),其中浓度最高点在靠近公路、燃油储存地以及科考站的俄罗斯湖。这表明南极洲内陆湖水中的PAHs很可能是当地的人为活动带来的。和其他偏远地区以及背景区域的PAHs的浓度水平相比,这些内陆湖水中溶解态的PAHs的浓度水平处于中上水平,即高于绝大多数背景区域PAHs的浓度。PAHs的组成分析显示,所有湖泊中低分子量PAHs(1-甲基萘和2-甲基萘)在∑PAH中均占了比较重要的比例,暗示了南极湖泊中的PAHs污染来源很可能为原油泄漏。近些年,大量的报道表明,在南极洲发生的轮船碰撞、飞机坠毁事件,造成大量的燃油在极地发生泄漏,这从侧面证实了我们的假设。此外,采样时拍摄的照片上,在湖水的表面发现了漂浮的油渍;样品中PAHs的质谱图与南极主要的燃油—航空煤油的十分相似。多数证据表明南极洲内陆湖湖水中的PAHs主要是来自当地人为活动,而非一直认为的大气长距离传输。评估淡水水体是否受到有机污染物的污染以及其污染的程度,与人们的健康息息相关,同时可以为政府相关职能部门制定有效的饮用水安全措施提供至关重要的基础信息。在中国,目前还没有统一的全国淡水中有机污染物的浓度的报道。为了弥补这一空白,本研究在全国的东北、中部以及西北地区共47个淡水水体,包括湖泊、河流以及水库中放置了被动水体采样器,以期获得表层水中的有机污染物的浓度。结果显示这些淡水水域的表层水中溶解态的∑24PAH的范围为0.28~538 ng L-1,其中浓度最高的点在武汉人口密集区域的南湖,浓度最低的点在西藏的纳木错湖。∑24PAH在中国的西部、中部、东部的平均值分别为5.2±4.2、9±10和14±16 ng L-1,在空间上的分布和人口密度的分布十分相似。二者的相关性分析关系发现,人口密度和表层水中溶解态PAHs的浓度有显著的线性相关性。随着PAHs化合物个数的增加,线性相关性越好,表明研究区域内水体中溶解态PAHs可能是来自跟人类活动相关的多个不同的来源。除了人口密度,一个区域的工业化程度也可能影响水中溶解态PAHs的浓度。例如,松花江流域和辽河流域人口的密度十分相近,但松花江流域接收的工业废水排放量要远远高于辽河流域接受的工业废水排放量。相应地,在松花江流域的∑7PAH平均浓度要比辽河流域的值高出1~2个数量级,尤其是在吉林市周边的水体中∑7PAH要显著高于其在非吉林周边水体中值。通过PAHs的组成分析、同分异构体比值分析法以及主因子分析?多元线性回归分析,发现我国表层水体中PAHs主要来自于石油源,化石燃料的燃烧来源以及存在煤和生物质燃烧的混合源。除了武汉南湖水体中蒽(anthracene)的浓度(27 ng L-1)超过加拿大环境理事会的水环境标准(其水标准中规定:对于水生生物长期暴露的水体,蒽的浓度不能超过12 ng L-1),其余所有采样点的单个PAH化合物浓度均未超过相关环境机构,包括美国环保署,欧盟以及加拿大环境理事会颁发的水标准。此外,上述结果亦显示可通过被动采样器建立一个全球范围的水体有机污染物的监测网络。
[Abstract]:Frequent human activities have brought various pollution to the environment, among which organic pollutants are the most concerned. Hydrophobic organic pollutants, such as persistent organic pollutants, have the characteristics of long-term, biological magnification, biological accumulation, easy long distance migration and other potential hazards to human and the environment. Organic pollutants can provide very effective information for assessing the exposure of aquatic organisms and even human beings, providing basic data for the formulation of relevant measures to control water pollution. The passive sampling technique has the advantages of low cost and easy operation. It provides an opportunity for the establishment of a monitoring network for organic pollutants in the world. In passive sampler, low density polyethylene film is used as a sampler for adsorption phase. Because of its low price, high repeatability and simple field operation, it is widely considered as the most suitable passive sampler for measuring organic pollutants in water. This study uses the self developed passive sampling device to select the inland lake of Antarctica and the water in our country as sampling. To verify the feasibility of the sampling device, and to determine the typical dissolved organic pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) in the water environment, analyze the pollution characteristics and verify the effect of human activities on the natural environment. In recent years, with the rapid development of tourism and the intensive scientific investigation activities, it has always been used. Antarctica, considered the last net earth of the earth, may have been contaminated. The concentration of the free dissolved Sigma PAH in the lakes in the Antarctic is 14~360 ng L-1 (median: 279 ng L-1), of which the highest concentration is near the highway, the oil storage area and the Russian lake at the science station. This indicates that the PAHs in the inland lake water of Antarctica is probably local. The concentration level of dissolved PAHs in these inland lakes is in the middle and upper level compared with the concentration levels of PAHs in other remote areas and in the background area, that is, the composition analysis of the concentration.PAHs above the overwhelming majority of the background region PAHs shows that the low molecular weight PAHs (1- methyl naphthalene and 2- methylnaphthalene) in all lakes is in the lake. The significant proportion of the sigma PAH indicates that the source of PAHs pollution in the Antarctic lakes is likely to be a crude oil leak. In recent years, a large number of reports indicate that the ship crash in Antarctica, the aircraft crash, caused a large amount of fuel in the polar region to leak, which confirms our hypothesis in the side. In addition, samples taken during sampling. On the surface of the lake, floating oil stains were found on the surface of the lake; the mass spectra of PAHs in the samples were very similar to that of the major Antarctic fuel - aviation kerosene. Most evidence showed that the PAHs in the inland lake and lake water of Antarctica was mainly from the local human activities rather than the long-range transmission of the atmosphere. Pollution of pollutants and the extent of their pollution are closely related to people's health. At the same time, it can provide important basic information for the government related functional departments to formulate effective drinking water safety measures. In China, there is no unified report on the concentration of organic pollutants in the country's fresh water. A total of 47 freshwater bodies in the northeast, central and northwestern regions of the country, including lakes, rivers and reservoirs, are placed in a passive water sampler to obtain the concentration of organic pollutants in the surface water. The results show that the dissolved Sigma 24PAH in the surface water of these freshwater waters is 0.28~538 ng L-1, with the highest concentration. The lowest concentration point is in the Nam Co Lake in Tibet, in the densely populated area of Wuhan. The mean value of sigma 24PAH in the western, central and eastern part of China is 5.2 + 4.2,9 + 10 and 14 + 16 ng L-1 respectively. The distribution of the space is very similar to the distribution of population density. The relationship between the two is found, population density and surface water. The concentration of dissolved PAHs has a significant linear correlation. With the increase of the number of PAHs compounds, the better the linear correlation is, indicating that the dissolved PAHs in the water body may come from a number of different sources related to human activity. In addition to the population density, the industrial degree of a region may also affect the dissolved PAHs in the water. For example, the density of the population in the Songhua River basin and the Liaohe River Basin is very close, but the discharge of the industrial waste water received by the Songhua River Valley is much higher than that of the industrial waste water received by the Liao River Basin. Accordingly, the mean concentration of the sigma 7PAH in Songhua River basin is higher than the value of the Liaohe River Basin by 1~2 orders of magnitude, especially in the Jilin week. The sigma 7PAH in the water body is significantly higher than that in the non Jilin waters. Through the analysis of the composition of PAHs, the isomer ratio analysis and the main factor analysis? Multiple linear regression analysis, it is found that the main source of PAHs in the surface water body of our country is from the source of oil, the source of the combustion of fossil fuel and the mixture of coal and biomass combustion. Source. The concentration of anthracene (anthracene) (27 ng L-1) in the water body of the southern Lake of Wuhan exceeds the water environment standard of the Canadian Environmental Council (its water standard stipulates that the concentration of anthracene can not exceed 12 ng L-1 for the long exposure water body of aquatic organisms), and the concentration of individual PAH compounds at all other sampling points do not exceed the relevant environmental institutions, including The water standards issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the European Union and the Canadian Environmental Council. In addition, the results also show that a global monitoring network for organic pollutants can be established through passive samplers.
【学位授予单位】:中国科学院大学(中国科学院广州地球化学研究所)
【学位级别】:博士
【学位授予年份】:2017
【分类号】:X52;X832

【参考文献】

相关期刊论文 前1条

1 ;Distribution and characteristic of PAHs in snow of Fildes Peninsula[J];Journal of Environmental Sciences;2011年09期



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