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包头钢铁公司的创建与技术创新(1953-1965年)

发布时间:2018-12-29 18:41  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:包头钢铁公司(简称包钢)是建国初期我国三大钢铁基地之一,它的兴建与投产可视为我国现代钢铁工业早期技术发展的模式,是我国现代钢铁工业化的缩影。对包钢的研究是中国现代钢铁工业史、技术史的一个重要课题。本文在前人的研究基础上通过挖掘档案史料,系统整理与包钢相关的文献,分析包钢建设初期(1953-1965年)在时政影响下的建厂举措,考察现在的炼钢厂、炼铁厂,对包钢铁从苏联引进的技术及受到技术决策影响等方面进行了研究,主要有以下几个方面:第一、本文系统搜集相关档案资料及未公开发表的厂志,对包钢建设初期的发展脉络进行梳理和归纳,分析立项建设包钢的原因,并对比当时中、苏及世界主要产钢国的冶炼技术水平,分析包钢建设初期从苏联引进冶炼技术的水平、所遇技术难题,在自力更生的基础上如何进行技术改造创新等问题。研究认为:包钢因白云鄂博存在稀土共生矿的特殊性,当时我方既无技术根基,又无参考经验,从苏方引进的技术和设备并不适应,遇到了各种技术难题,包钢的技术创新之路围绕解决这些难题展开,包钢的冶炼攻关史就是一部钢铁行业的技术进步史。再者,包钢的大规模建设适逢“大跃进”时期,一系列政治运动导致的技术决策出现偏差和错误,使中国的钢铁行业付出了极大的代价,本文对以包钢为中心的内蒙古“大炼钢铁”运动作进一步分析,总结包钢因没有遵循钢铁行业科学发展规律,技术发展受到重挫的经验教训。这些工作,弥补了这一研究领域的不足,尤其是从科学技术与社会(STS)的角度进行综合考察,分析政治干预对技术决策的影响,指出这是前人关注较少而对包钢技术发展非常重要的因素。第二、根据档案文献等资料,根据档案文献等资料,回顾包钢早期在技术能力本土化的进程中如何培养自己的工程师和工人;总结苏联工程师在包钢建设中的作用和特点;并以首任经理、技术专家型领导干部杨维做为个案进行研究,强调科学决策对人才培养、技术和事业发展的决定性作用。本文文末还对包钢实际建设情况与原有设计规划及同期武汉钢铁公司的建设情况进行对比,研究表明包钢因其矿源的特殊性及政治决策的影响程度大于武钢,致使其技术的发展落后于武钢,对后续的建设影响也比较大。第三、本文把包钢的发展置于现代钢铁技术体系下进行研究,表明包钢虽在建设初期遇到种种困难,未能按最初的规划如期建成,但在北方边疆地区,包钢平地起家,不仅在少数民族地区、也是当时华北地区唯一的一家大型钢铁基地,后来又发展成为世界最大的稀土工业基地和内蒙古自治区最大的工业企业,对于全国钢铁工业合理布局的形成,尤其是带动整个自治区为工业为中心的国民经济发展,起到不可估量的作用,因此不能因包钢遭受的损失低估它对钢铁技术现代化的意义。中国现代钢铁工业技术起步于从苏联引进的技术,然后逐步走上自力更生技术创新之路,其发展是在跌宕起伏的社会背景下进行的,不同时期采用的技术政策对钢铁行业发展的影响至关重要,总结各个阶段技术发展的特点,可看出技术决策的决定性作用;包钢的技术路线反映出中国现代钢铁工业技术发展的变迁,并对今天的技术创新,起到积极的借鉴作用。
[Abstract]:Baotou Iron and Steel Company (Baotou Steel) is one of the three major steel bases in China at the beginning of the PRC, and its construction and production can be regarded as the mode of the early technology development of the modern steel industry in China. It is a microcosm of the modern steel industry in China. The research of Baotou Steel is an important subject of the history and technology history of modern iron and steel industry in China. On the basis of the previous research, this paper, based on the previous research, through the data of the archives, the systematic arrangement and the relevant literature of Baotou Steel, analyzes the construction of the construction plant under the influence of the time and government at the beginning of the construction of Baotou Steel (1953-1965), and studies the current steel-making plant and iron-smelting plant. The paper studies the technology of the steel from the Soviet Union and the influence of the technological decision-making, and mainly includes the following aspects: first, the system gathers the relevant archives and the undisclosed factory records, and the development of the initial stage of the construction of the steel-clad steel is analyzed and summarized. The reason of the construction and construction of Baotou Steel was analyzed and compared with that of the main steel-producing countries at the time, the level of smelting technology introduced from the Soviet Union in the early stage of the construction of Baotou Steel was analyzed, the technical problems encountered, and how to carry out technical transformation and innovation on the basis of self-reliance. The research is as follows: because of the particularity of the rare-earth co-raw ore in the Baiyunebo, at that time, we have neither the technical foundation nor the reference experience, the technology and equipment introduced from the Soviet party are not suitable, and various technical problems are encountered, and the road of the technological innovation of the steel-clad steel is unfolded around solving these problems. The research history of smelting in Baotou Steel is the technological progress history of a steel industry. In addition, the large-scale construction of Baotou Steel in the Great Leap Forward period, a series of political movement resulted in the deviation and the error of the technological decision-making, which made the steel industry in China paid a great deal of price, this paper further analyzed the steel movement in Inner Mongolia as the center of Baotou Steel, At the end of this paper, the scientific and technological development of the steel industry has not been followed, and the experience and lessons of the technology development have been severely damaged. The work has made up the deficiency of this research field, especially from the angle of science and technology and society (STS), and analyzed the influence of political interference on technology decision-making, and pointed out that this is a very important factor for the development of Baotou Steel's technology. Secondly, according to the data of the file and so on, according to the data of the file, how to train its engineers and workers in the process of the localization of technology ability in the early stage of Baotou Steel is reviewed, the role and characteristics of the Soviet engineers in the construction of Baotou Steel are summarized, and the first manager, Yang Wei, a leading cadre of technical experts, made a case study, and stressed the decisive role of scientific decision-making on the development of talents, technology and cause. In this paper, the actual construction of Baotou Steel is compared with the original design plan and the construction of Wuhan Iron and Steel Company in the same period. and the subsequent construction impact is also relatively large. Third, the paper studies the development of Baotou Steel under the system of modern steel and steel, and shows that the Baotou Steel has not been completed as scheduled, but in the northern border area, Baogang made its own self-made, not only in the minority areas, but also in the northern border area. It was the only large steel base in North China at that time, and then developed into the largest industrial base of rare-earth industry in the world and the largest industrial enterprise in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. In particular, the whole autonomous region is driven by the development of the national economy, which is the center of the industry, and has played an inestimable role, and therefore cannot underestimate the significance of its modernization to the steel technology because of the losses suffered by the steel-clad steel. The technology of modern iron and steel industry in China is starting from the technology introduced from the Soviet Union and then gradually on the road of self-reliance technology innovation. The development of China's modern iron and steel industry is carried out under the social background of the ups and downs, and the technology policy adopted at different times is of great importance to the development of the steel industry. The paper summarizes the characteristics of the technology development of the various stages, and can see the decisive role of the technology decision-making; the technical route of the steel-clad steel reflects the change of the technology development of the modern iron and steel industry in China, and has a positive reference to the technology innovation today.
【学位授予单位】:内蒙古师范大学
【学位级别】:博士
【学位授予年份】:2016
【分类号】:F426.31;F273.1


本文编号:2395230


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