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裸燕麦硒肥生产技术效应及硒吸收机理研究

发布时间:2018-10-25 16:38  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:裸燕麦为我国主栽燕麦种,具有降脂降糖功能,近年来消费量一直处于快速增长状态。硒为哺乳动物必需痕量元素,具有显著抗氧化功能。我国多数裸燕麦主产区缺硒。本研究于2012-2014年期间在河北省张家口坝上地区及国家燕麦荞麦产业技术体系11个试验站,对裸燕麦硒肥生产技术效应及硒吸收机理进行试验研究,旨在阐明硒肥对裸燕麦生产的影响,为富硒燕麦生产提供理论依据与技术措施。研究得出以下结论:1、裸燕麦基因型对硒吸收率存在显著影响(P0.05)。两年籽粒硒含量分别比对照增加677.8%-1248.9%和707.4%-2466.7%。硒吸收能力较强的品种有内燕5号、晋燕5号、坝莜1号,两年喷施硒肥分别增加677.8%、953.6%、864.6%和707.4%、792.4%、1384.3%;中等硒吸收能力品种有花早2号、晋燕13号,两年喷施硒肥分别增加1161.7%、1064.0%和953.4%、1580.8%;2、喷施不同量硒肥(6水平)均显著增加了坝莜1号籽粒硒含量(P0.05),2013、2014年子粒硒含量比对照分别高528.6%-1092.9%和654.5%-1258.2%;两年均以处理C5(三叶期、拔节期两次喷施1号硒肥2100g·hm-2,抽穗期和成熟期前十天左右喷施2号硒肥8400 g·hm-2)子粒硒含量最高,分别为83.5μg.kg-1、74.7μg·kg-1;喷施硒肥可显著提高裸燕麦子粒粗蛋白含量(P0.05)。两年分别比对照高10.1%-18.9%,2.6%-12.7%。3、增施氮肥可增强籽粒对硒的吸收。两年6个施N量处理比对照籽粒硒含量分别高7.3%-31.3%、4.2%-19.1%;两年均为N4处理(三叶期、拔节期分别施N180kg·hm2、210kg·hm-2,三叶期和拔节期喷施1号硒肥1500 g·hm-2,抽穗期和成熟期前十天左右喷施2号硒肥6000 g·hm-2)籽粒硒含量最高(P0.05),分别为62.9μg·kg-1、53.5μg·kg-1。4、施用生物有机肥、保水剂条件下,喷施硒肥处理对籽粒硒含量增加显著(P0.05)。两年3处理(T3:叶面硒肥处理、T4:保水剂+叶面硒肥、T5:生物有机肥+叶面硒肥)分别比对照籽粒硒含量高620.8%,622.1%,651.9%和1065.2%,1034.8%,993.5%。施用生物有机肥能够显著提高穗粒数和子籽粒产量(P0.05)。T2、T5分别比对照穗粒数提高6.8%和9.5%,籽粒产量分别提高17.2%和20.7%,籽粒粗蛋白含量分别提高27.4%,29.8%和10.6%,12.2%。5、不同生境条件下喷施硒肥可显著增加白燕2号籽粒硒含量(P0.05),两年增幅范围分别为26.8%-100.0%、42.0%-93.3%。裸燕麦在不同生境下对硒的累积不同,2012年喷施硒肥和不喷施硒肥条件下均为甘肃定西籽粒硒含量最高,分别为153.0μg·kg-1和208.9gg·kg-1。2013年喷施硒肥和不喷施硒肥条件下均为宁夏固原的籽粒硒含量最高,分别为118.1μg-kg-1和203.4μg·kg-1。6、基施硒肥对裸燕麦小穗数、穗粒数、穗粒重有显著增加作用(P0.05)。随着施量增加,小穗数呈现先增加后降低趋势。7、不基施硒肥裸燕麦根系硒含量高于茎与叶,随生长发育根部硒浓度先缓慢增长后快速增长,茎、叶硒含量表现出缓慢下降趋势;基施硒肥裸燕麦根和叶硒积累与不施肥条件下变化规律相似。而茎硒累积变化随生育期呈现缓慢增长-快速下降-缓慢下降的倒S型曲线变化规律。8、基施硒肥显著提高裸燕麦不同时期各器官硒浓度(P0.05),试验组与对照分蘖期、拔节期各器官硒浓度为根茎叶;抽穗期为根叶茎;成熟期为根籽粒叶茎,呈两极积聚特征。
[Abstract]:The naked oats are the main oat species of our country, have the function of reducing blood lipid and reducing blood sugar, and the consumption has been in the fast-growing state in recent years. Selenium is a necessary trace element in mammals and has a significant anti-oxidation function. There is a shortage of selenium in the main production areas of most nude oats in our country. This study was conducted in 11 experimental stations in Zhangjiakou Dam of Hebei Province and 11 experimental stations in the national oat buckwheat industry in 2012-2014. The technical effect of selenium fertilizer production and the mechanism of selenium absorption were studied in order to clarify the effect of selenium fertilizer on the production of naked oats. It provides theoretical basis and technical measures for the production of selenium-rich oat. The results showed that the genotype of naked oats had a significant effect on the selenium absorption rate (P0.05). The grain selenium content in two years increased by 677. 8%-124.8%-124.8% and 707. 4%-2466. 7%, respectively. Among the varieties with strong selenium absorption capacity, there were No. 5, No. 5 Jinyan No. 5 and No. 1 of dam No. 1. The two-year spraying of selenium fertilizer increased by 677. 8%, 95.3. 6%, 864. 6% and 707. 4%, 792. 4%, 1384. 3% respectively. Medium selenium absorption capacity was 2, Jinyan No. 13, and the two-year spraying of selenium fertilizer increased 1161. 7%, respectively. The content of selenium (P 0.05), selenium content in the grain of dam No. 1 was significantly increased (P0.05). In 2013, the selenium content was 52.8% -1092. 9% and 654. 5% -1258. 2% respectively in 2013 and 2014. The two years were treated with C5 (three-leaf stage), and one selenium fertilizer (2100g 路 hm-2) was sprayed twice. The content of selenium (8400g 路 hm -2) of selenium fertilizer was 8400g 路 hm -2) at heading stage and mature stage (8400g 路 hm -2), the content of selenium was 83. 5 ug 路 kg-1, 74. 7 ug 路 kg-1 respectively, and the content of crude protein of naked oats was significantly increased by spraying selenium fertilizer (P0.05). 2. 1%-18. 9%, 2.6%-12. 7% higher than CK in two years. The increase of nitrogen fertilizer can enhance the absorption of selenium. Compared with the control grain, the content of selenium in six treatments was 7. 3% -31. 3%, 4. 2% -19. 1% higher than that of the control grain, respectively. The two years were N4 treatments (three-leaf period, the pulling-out period was N180kg 路 hm ~ 2, 210kg 路 hm-2, the three-leaf period and the pulling-out period), and the selenium fertilizer was sprayed with 1500 g 路 hm -2, respectively. The content of selenium (P0.05) was the highest (P0.05). The content of selenium was increased significantly (P0.05). 3 treatments (T3: leaf surface selenium fertilizer treatment, T4: water retention agent + leaf selenium fertilizer, T5: bio-organic fertilizer + leaf selenium fertilizer) were 66.2%, 62.2%, 10.8% and 3993.5% respectively. The application of bio-organic fertilizer could significantly improve the grain number and seed yield (P0.05). The yield of grain was increased by 6.8% and 9.5%, respectively. The grain yield was increased by 17. 2% and 20.7%, respectively. The crude protein content of grain increased by 27. 4%, 29. 8% and 10.6%, 12.2%, respectively. The grain selenium content of white Yan 2 was significantly increased under different habitat conditions (P0.05). The two-year increase range was 26. 8%-100. 0%, 42. 0%-93.3%, respectively. The selenium content of naked oats was different under different habitats, and the selenium content was 153. 0 ug 路 kg-1 and 208. 983 路 kg-1, respectively. The number of spikelet, spike number and grain weight of naked oats were significantly increased (P0.05). The selenium content of naked oat root was higher than that of stem and leaf, and the content of selenium in stems and leaves showed a slow decrease with the increase of selenium concentration in the root of growth and development. The accumulation of selenium in bare oats and leaf selenium was similar to that of non-fertilization. The changes of selenium accumulation in stem and selenium increased slowly along with the growth period-rapid descent-slow descent of the inverted S-type curve. The selenium concentration in different organs of bare oats was significantly increased (P <0.05). The heading stage is the stem of the root, and the mature stage is the leaf stem of the root, and is characterized by two poles.
【学位授予单位】:中国农业大学
【学位级别】:博士
【学位授予年份】:2016
【分类号】:S512.6

【参考文献】

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1 周光明,彭敬东,张新申;低压离子色谱法测定土壤中的硒 (Ⅳ )和硒 (Ⅵ )(英文)[J];西南师范大学学报(自然科学版);2002年04期



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