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论马克思的现实观及其现实意义

发布时间:2018-12-17 16:10  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:马克思的现实观是马克思主义哲学的重要组成部分。探究马克思的现实观形成缘由、方法及内容也有利于我们加深对现实的思考和认识更有助于我们对马克思辩证唯物主义和历史唯物主义的理解和运用。以此为出发点,本文研究马克思的现实观从以下几个部分展开。第一部分为导论,简要介绍了本课题的选题背景和缘由、研究方法以及研究现状。着重梳理了从古希腊到当代社会人们对“现实”概念的探索和研究。第二部分以“现实”的概念为切入点,阐述马克思的现实观由幼稚走向成熟,由带有黑格尔和费尔巴哈色彩转而形成辩证唯物主义和历史唯物主义的现实观。马克思的思想发展和转变大致有以下几个时期:一、在“博士论文”时期,开始关注并阐述现实。二、《莱茵报》到《德法年鉴》为马克思现实观的转变时期。三、《1844年经济学哲学手稿》和《神圣家族》的发表标志马克思的现实观初步形成。四、《关于费尔巴哈的提纲》和《德意志形态》标志着马克思的现实观最终确立。第三部分讨论马克思考察现实的基本方法。总的来说,马克思是运用新唯物主义的方法来阐释,具体来说,包含以下三点:一、从“抽象的人”到“现实的人”。通过对“现实的人”的考察以了解现实。二、对费尔巴哈认识论的超越,马克思的“新唯物主义”是理性认识对感性直观的超越。三、对市民社会的批判,主要是对黑格尔市民社会理论的批判。马克思提倡;市民社会与国家的发展不属于伦理的范畴只是现实的实际的分歧所在,主要认为家庭与市民的发展不是国家发展的结果而是家庭与市民发展的共同的产物之一,将政治社会的发展与市民社会的发展结合起来。第四部分归纳了马克思现实观的基本内容,对马克思的现实观进行全面、系统的概括和总结。第五部分发掘马克思的现实观的特点。找到马克思的现实观与以前的现实观点最大不同之处是马克思总是立足于本质的发展的基础之上进行深入的探讨并且马克思主义具备发展的革新特点,所以马克思的现实观总在自我革新和向前发展。第六部分探讨了马克思的现实观的现实意义。本文认为研究马克思的现实观可以为人类解决社会历史发展中的困境提供了科学的指导。马克思的现实观本身也实现了真正科学的历史观。学习马克思的现实观将为我们这一代人更好的把握和改变现实提供方法和理论指导。
[Abstract]:Marx's realistic view is an important part of Marxist philosophy. To probe into the reason of Marx's realistic view, the method and content are also helpful for us to deepen our thinking and understanding of reality, and also help us to understand and apply Marxist dialectical materialism and historical materialism. As a starting point, this article studies Marx's realistic view from the following parts. The first part is the introduction, briefly introduces the background and reason of the topic, research methods and research status. This paper focuses on the exploration and study of the concept of "reality" from ancient Greece to contemporary society. The second part takes the concept of "reality" as the breakthrough point, expounds Marx's realistic view from childish to mature, from the color of Hegel and Feuerbach to form the realistic view of dialectical materialism and historical materialism. Marx's thought development and transformation have the following periods: first, in the "doctoral thesis" period, began to pay attention to and explain the reality. Second, the "Rhine-Journal" to the "Almanac of morality and Law" for the transformation of Marx's view of reality. Third, the publication of the manuscripts of Economics and philosophy in 1844 and the Holy Family symbolized Marx's view of reality. Fourthly, the outline of Feuerbach and the German form symbolize the establishment of Marx's view of reality. The third part discusses Marx's basic method of examining reality. In general, Marx uses the method of neo-materialism to explain, specifically, it includes the following three points: first, from abstract man to realistic person. To understand the reality through the examination of the "realistic person". Secondly, transcending Feuerbach's epistemology, Marx's "New materialism" is the transcendence of rational cognition to perceptual intuition. Third, the criticism of civil society, mainly the criticism of Hegel's theory of civil society. Marx advocated; The development of the civil society and the country does not belong to the realm of ethics. It is only the actual difference in reality. It is mainly held that the development of the family and the citizens is not the result of national development but one of the common products of the development of the family and the citizens. Combine the development of political society with the development of civil society. The fourth part summarizes the basic content of Marx's realistic view, and generalizes and summarizes Marx's realistic view in a comprehensive and systematic way. The fifth part explores the characteristics of Marx's view of reality. To find out the biggest difference between Marx's realistic view and previous realistic view is that Marx is always based on the essence of the development on the basis of in-depth discussion and Marxism has the innovative characteristics of development. Therefore, Marx's view of reality is always in self-innovation and forward development. The sixth part discusses the realistic significance of Marx's view of reality. This paper holds that the study of Marx's view of reality can provide scientific guidance for human beings to solve the dilemma in the development of social history. Marx's view of reality itself also realized a true scientific view of history. Studying Marx's view of reality will provide methods and theoretical guidance for our generation to better grasp and change the reality.
【学位授予单位】:华中师范大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2017
【分类号】:A81

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