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日光温室番茄褪绿病毒的化学防治和农药施药技术研究

发布时间:2019-01-07 22:11  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:针对番茄褪绿病毒病(Tomato chlorosis virus,ToCV)在我国蔬菜上发生危害加重的现状,研究并探索了其在日光温室的发生规律和防治技术;针对蔬菜病虫害防治中农药利用率偏低的问题,分析了农药剂型、喷雾助剂对药液在蔬菜叶片上的润湿展布的影响,测定了不同的施药方式在番茄植株上沉积分布规律,明确了影响雾滴沉积的因素。研究结果如下:调查了秋季日光温室烟粉虱成虫种群动态和ToCV病毒病发生规律:调查期间,日光温室烟粉虱、ToCV病毒病整体呈上升趋势:烟粉虱数量分别在9月中旬(3头/叶)、10月上旬(4.68头/叶)和11月下旬(6.16头/叶)出现高峰;ToCV病毒病10月下旬发生,11月下旬达到高峰(发病株率45.83%)。测定了化学药剂对烟粉虱和ToCV病毒病的防治效果:10%吡丙醚悬浮剂1170-900m L/ha、10%溴氰虫酰胺油悬浮剂375-300 mL/ha、40%呋虫胺可溶粉剂850-750 mL/ha处理的防治效果达95.55%-84.64%;病毒病抑制剂“丰农”100-300倍液对ToCV防治效果为27.63%-15.79%,对番茄褪绿病毒病有一定的抑制作用。测定了农药剂型对甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐在叶片上的展布性能的影响:在药液浓度分别为30 mg/L、40 mg/L、50 mg/L条件下,药液在番茄叶片上的接触角和表面张力的动态变化结果表明,微乳剂药液在叶片上湿润展布性能优于水分散粒剂。测定了三种喷雾助剂S903(有机硅)、迈道(矿物油)、迈丝(植物油)的临界胶束浓度。添加有效浓度的有机硅助剂后,药液接触角在叶片上变为0°,但添加植物油助剂和矿物油助剂,药液并不能完全在叶片上展布。测定电动喷雾器、静电喷雾器、多功能烟雾机施药条件下药液沉积变化规律:使用多功能烟雾机喷雾,药液在番茄植株的内层和外层分布均匀,冠层的上部雾滴分布沉积量多,株冠层上部沉积量大于下、中部;多功能静电喷雾、电动喷雾,药液在植株外层的沉积量大于内层,且在植株上、中、下分布均匀。多功能烟雾机、静电喷雾、电动喷雾喷药液在地面的流失率为5.4%、7.3%、15.5%。
[Abstract]:In view of the situation that tomato chlorotic virus (Tomato chlorosis virus,ToCV) is harmful to vegetables in our country, the occurrence rule and control technology of tomato chlorotic virus in greenhouse are studied and explored. Aiming at the problem of low utilization rate of pesticide in vegetable pest control, the effects of pesticide dosage form and spray assistant on the wetting distribution of pesticide solution on vegetable leaves were analyzed, and the deposition and distribution of different application methods on tomato plant were determined. The factors affecting the deposition of droplets were determined. The results are as follows: the population dynamics of whitefly adults and the occurrence of ToCV virus disease were investigated in autumn. The number of Bemisia Tabaci increased in the middle of September (3 per leaf), in the first ten days of October (4.68 per leaf) and in late November (6.16 per leaf). ToCV virus disease occurred in late October and reached its peak in late November (45.83%). The control effect of chemical agents on Bemisia Tabaci and ToCV virus disease was determined: 10% propyl ether suspension was 1170-900m L / ha 10% bromocyanamide oil suspension 375-300 mL/ha,. The control effect of 40% furosemide soluble powder (850-750 mL/ha) was 95.55-84.64; The 100-300 times solution of "Fengnon", a virus inhibitor, had a control effect of 27.63- 15.79g on ToCV, and had a certain inhibitory effect on tomato chlorotic virus disease. The effects of pesticide formulation on the distribution of methylaminoabamectin benzoate on the leaves were determined: under the conditions of 30 mg/L,40 mg/L,50 mg/L concentration of the solution, The dynamic change of contact angle and surface tension on tomato leaves showed that the wetting and spreading properties of microemulsion were better than that of water dispersible granules. The critical micelle concentrations of three spray promoters, S903 (organosilicon), Meadow (mineral oil) and meridian (vegetable oil), were determined. When the effective concentration of organosilicon additive was added, the contact angle of the solution changed to 0 掳on the leaf, but the additive of vegetable oil and mineral oil could not completely distribute the liquid on the leaf. The changes of drug solution deposition under the conditions of electric sprayer, electrostatic sprayer and multifunctional smog machine were determined. The spray was applied to the tomato plant. The spray was distributed evenly in the inner and outer layers of tomato plant, and the amount of droplet in the upper layer of the canopy was more than that in the top layer. The amount of deposition in the upper part of the canopy is greater than that in the lower part and the middle part; The deposition amount of multifunctional electrostatic spray, electrospray and solution in the outer layer of the plant was larger than that in the inner layer, and the distribution was uniform in the upper, middle and lower layers of the plant. The loss rate of multifunctional smog machine, electrostatic spray and electric spray on the ground is 5.4% and 7.3% and 15.5% respectively.
【学位授予单位】:山东农业大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2017
【分类号】:S436.412

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