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玉米田3种农药和共生菌毒素对3种赤眼蜂的安全性评价

发布时间:2019-01-09 11:28  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:在农业生产过程中,作物病虫草等有害生物防治是保障粮食稳产增产的重要环节。因化学农药具有广谱、高效等特点,目前仍是作物有害生物防治的重要途径。但由于化学农药使用过程中存在过量、超量和盲目等不合理使用现象,极易引起"3R"问题,同时也可能对天敌昆虫的存活、生长发育和繁殖等产生影响,破坏农业生态系统平衡和生物多样性。因此,开展农药对天敌昆虫的急性毒性和安全性评价,明确农药对天敌昆虫的亚致死效应,对于田间应用农药防治时的合理选择和使用具有重要指导意义。本文在实验室条件下,采用药膜法测定了烟嘧磺隆、氯虫苯甲酰胺2种化学农药与苏云金芽孢杆菌、共生菌毒素2种生物农药对松毛虫赤眼蜂、玉米螟赤眼蜂、螟黄赤眼蜂3种赤眼蜂急性毒性,并进行了安全评价;在此基础上研究了4种农药对3种赤眼蜂存活及其繁殖的亚致死效应。全文主要研究结果如下:1.确定了氯虫苯甲酰胺和烟嘧磺隆对3种赤眼蜂的急性毒性,并评价其安全性。采用药膜接触法,对3种赤眼蜂的死亡和存活率进行比较,结果显示,烟嘧磺隆对松毛虫赤眼蜂、玉米螟赤眼蜂、螟黄赤眼蜂LCso分别是351.81、31.96和3.93 mg/L,对3种赤眼蜂的风险性分别为低风险、高风险、高风险。氯虫苯甲酰胺对松毛虫赤眼蜂、玉米螟赤眼蜂、螟黄赤眼蜂LC50分别是7.17、2.85和0.0076 mg/L,对3种赤眼蜂的风险评估结果是中等风险、高风险、极高风险。2.确定了苏云金芽孢杆菌和共生菌毒素对3种赤眼蜂的急性毒性,并对其安全性做出了评价。采用药膜接触法,对3种赤眼蜂的死亡和存活率进行比较,结果显示,苏云金芽孢杆菌对松毛虫赤眼蜂、玉米螟赤眼蜂、螟黄赤眼蜂LC50分别是254.17、56.52和195.06 mg/L,该药对3种赤眼蜂的安全性全部为中等风险。共生菌毒素对松毛虫赤眼蜂、玉米螟赤眼蜂、螟黄赤眼蜂LC50分别是27670.4、1198.94和89825.24 mg/L,共生菌毒素对3种赤眼蜂的安全性均为低风险。3.研究了氯虫苯甲酰胺和烟嘧磺隆对3种赤眼蜂的亚致死效应。通过药膜接触法,将LC30浓度的烟嘧磺隆和氯虫苯甲酰胺做成药膜,使赤眼蜂分别与2种化学农药短时接触,对其生存繁殖等结果进行比较。结果表明,氯虫苯甲酰胺对玉米螟赤眼蜂生存和繁殖均表现出较高的影响,其次是螟黄赤眼蜂,影响最小的是松毛虫赤眼蜂。烟嘧磺隆虽然对玉米螟赤眼蜂和松毛虫赤眼蜂有一定的影响但是影响并不显著。4.研究了苏云金芽孢杆菌对3种赤眼蜂的亚致死效应。通过药膜接触法,将LC30浓度的苏云金芽孢杆菌和共生菌毒素做成药膜,使赤眼蜂分别与2种化学农药短时接触,对其生存繁殖等结果进行比较。结果表明,苏云金芽孢杆菌对3种赤眼蜂均有影响,其中对玉米螟赤眼蜂的影响最为强烈,其存活率、产卵量及子代羽化率均显著低于其他两种赤眼蜂。
[Abstract]:In the course of agricultural production, the prevention and control of crops, pests and grasses is an important link to ensure the stable yield and increase the yield of grain. Chemical pesticides are still an important way to control crop pests because of their wide spectrum and high efficiency. However, due to the unreasonable use of chemical pesticides, such as excessive use, overdose and blindness, it is easy to cause the "3R" problem, which may also have an impact on the survival, growth, development and reproduction of natural enemy insects. Disrupting the balance of agricultural ecosystems and biodiversity. Therefore, it is of great significance to evaluate the acute toxicity and safety of pesticides to natural enemy insects and to determine the sublethal effect of pesticides on natural enemy insects, which is of great significance for the rational selection and application of pesticide control in the field. In this paper, two kinds of chemical pesticides, nicosulfuron, chlorobenzamide, Bacillus thuringiensis and symbiotic toxin, were used to determine the effects of two kinds of biological pesticides on Trichogramma Dendrolimus and Trichogramma furnacalis under the laboratory conditions, such as nicosulfuron, chlorobenzamide, Bacillus thuringiensis and symbiotic toxin. The acute toxicity of 3 species of Trichogramma borer Trichogramma was evaluated. The sublethal effects of four pesticides on the survival and reproduction of three Trichogramma species were studied. The main results are as follows: 1. The acute toxicity of chlorfenfluamide and nicosulfuron to three species of Trichogramma was determined and its safety was evaluated. The death rate and survival rate of three Trichogramma species were compared by membrane contact method. The results showed that the LCso of nicosulfuron against Trichogramma Dendrolimus, Trichogramma furnacalis and Trichogramma borer were 351.8131.96 and 3.93 mg/L, respectively. The risk of three Trichogramma species were low risk and high risk respectively. The results showed that the LC50 of Trichogramma punctatus, Trichogramma furnacalis and Trichogramma borer was 7.170.85 and 0.0076 mg/L, respectively. The results showed that the risk of the three species of Trichogramma was moderate, high and extremely high. 2. The acute toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis and symbiotic toxin to three species of Trichogramma was determined and its safety was evaluated. The death rate and survival rate of three Trichogramma species were compared by membrane contact method. The results showed that the LC50 of Bacillus thuringiensis against Trichogramma Dendrolimus, Trichogramma furnacalis and Trichogramma borer were 254.1756.52 and 195.06 mg/L, respectively. The safety of the drug to the three species of Trichogramma wasp. The safety of symbiotic toxin against Trichogramma Dendrolimus, Trichogramma furnacalis and Trichogramma borer LC50 was 27670.41198.94 and 89825.24 mg/L, respectively. The sublethal effects of chlorfenamide and nicosulfuron on three species of Trichogramma were studied. Through the method of membrane contact, the LC30 concentration of nicosulfuron and chlorobenzamide were used to make the membrane. The results of survival and reproduction of Trichogramma were compared with those of two kinds of chemical pesticides. The results showed that benzoamide had a higher effect on the survival and reproduction of Trichogramma furnacalis, followed by Trichogramma borer and Trichogramma Dendrolimus. Nicosulfuron had a certain effect on Trichogramma oryzae and Trichogramma Dendrolimus, but the effect was not significant. 4. The sublethal effects of Bacillus thuringiensis on three species of Trichogramma were studied. The LC30 concentration of Bacillus thuringiensis and symbiotic toxin were made into the membrane by the method of membrane contact. The results of survival and reproduction of Trichogramma were compared with those of two kinds of chemical pesticides. The results showed that Bacillus thuringiensis had an effect on the three species of Trichogramma, among which the effect on Trichogramma was the strongest, and the survival rate, spawning quantity and emergence rate of offspring were significantly lower than those of the other two species of Trichogramma.
【学位授予单位】:沈阳农业大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2017
【分类号】:S476.3

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