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中国英语学习者英语关系从句填充词—空位加工的ERP研究

发布时间:2019-05-15 18:38
【摘要】:语言作为一种复杂的心理认知活动,其心理过程往往是在以毫秒为单位的时间内整合起来的。事件相关电位技术(ERP s)能描述语言加工即时而连续的心理时间历程,能弥补传统行为研究只能获取以反应时和正确率为指标的语言加工综合结果的局限。因此,ERP技术被研究者运用到语言加工中来。传统的对于语言加工过程的认识局限引发了本课题将ERP技术作为当前研究工具。目前,有关单句加工的ERP研究己受到普遍关注,并取得丰富的成果,对于复杂句加工的ERP研究还有待发展。关系从句具有语言普遍性特征,其加工的关键在于填充词与空位依存关系的顺利解决。一语中,对填充词—空位加工的解释趋向一致,而二语背景下对填充词—空位加工解释趋向多元化。因此,研究中国英语学习者对填充词—空位加工和理解过程具有一定的现实意义。本研究利用ERP技术,采用空位位置违例的研究范式,尝试探索中国英语学习者填充词—空位加工的心理机制,利用ERP技术的各项指标尝试性解释母语为汉语晚习得的英汉双语者填充词—空位加工的实时心理过程。为此,实验挑选了31名被试,分为高低水平组,高水平组为16名通过英语专业八级考试的英语研究生;低水平组为15名未通过大学英语四级非英语专业的大学生。本研究对收集的两组数据在非词空位违例,填充空位违例与合法的空位及无空位的宾语条件下进行了对比分析。研究发现:1.在空位违例处与无空位的宾语处,两组被试均出现了早期负成分,波幅在前额达到最大。这体现了两组被试根据词汇的类别信息对句法结构的初步分配,对应句法加工模型的第一阶段(Friederici 1995,2002)。虽然观察到的早期负波不能有效区分实验条件与控制条件,这些负波似乎表明句法分析器对句法结构有初步察觉。2.与控制句无空位的宾语相较,在非词空位违例条件下,高水平组出现了广泛分布的与句法整合相关的P600成分而低水平组出现了广泛分布的与语义加工有关的N400成分。这体现了两组被试不同的加工机制:高水平学习者在加工空位上的非词时,句法处理先于语义处理,句法分析器对于整合困难能自我修复和再分析,以期解决填充词与空位的依存关系;低水平学习者在加工空位上的非词时,语义处理先于句法处理,句法分析器对于无语义表征的非词只有语义有失匹配的觉察而缺乏对填充词—空位的整合。N400对应句法加工模型的第二阶段;P600对应句法加工模型的第三阶段(Friederici,1995,2002)。3.在填充空位违例情况下,高低水平组均出现了LAN成分,但高水平的波幅更大,成分分布更广。这体现了两组被试对形态句法违例的察觉。N400成分缺失表明两组被试对空位上的名词词组成功进行了题元角色分配。句法分析器将空位上名词词组整合到了动词的论元结构中而拒绝了填充词。语义通达似乎对于填充词—空位结构的非法性起消解作用。4.两种实验条件的结果都部分支持了浅层结构假设理论,低水平者不能充分提取自己头脑中的语法知识进行深层处理:但也部分拒绝了这一理论,高水平者加工复杂句法结构时似乎与母语者一致,能够运用句法深层处理机制进行语言加工。本研究似乎不能支持直接联系假设而部分支持语迹再激活假设,填充词—空位依存关系由空位得到调节而非依靠题元角色分配。
[Abstract]:As a kind of complex psychological cognitive activity, the psychological process of the language is often integrated within the time of milliseconds. The event-related potential technology (ERP) can process the real-time and continuous psychological time course in the description language, and can make up for the limitation of the traditional behavior research only to obtain the comprehensive result of the language processing based on the response time and the accuracy rate. Therefore, ERP technology is used by the researchers in language processing. The traditional understanding of the process of language processing has caused the subject to use the ERP technology as the current research tool. At present, the research on the ERP of single-sentence processing has been paid close attention, and the result is rich, and the research on the ERP of complex sentence processing is still to be developed. The key to the processing is the smooth solution of the filling word and the vacancy dependency. In the word, the interpretation tendency of the filling-word space-filling processing is consistent, while in the second language background, the explanation of the filling-word space-filling processing is more diversified. Therefore, it is of practical significance for Chinese English learners to study and understand the process and understanding of filling words. This research uses the ERP technology, adopts the research paradigm of the vacancy location violation, tries to explore the psychological mechanism of the Chinese English learners' filling words and the vacancy processing, In this paper, the real-time psychological process of the English-Chinese double-language filling words and the processing of the English-Chinese double-language filled words in the Chinese language is tentatively explained by using the indexes of the ERP technology. To this end,31 subjects were selected and divided into high and low level groups. The high-level group consisted of 16 English postgraduates who passed the eight-grade test of English major. The low-level group was 15 students who had not passed the English-level non-English major in college English. This study makes a comparative analysis of the two groups of data collected in the non-word-space violation, the filling vacancy violation and the legal vacancy and the object-free object. The study found:1. There was an early negative component in both groups at the position of the vacancy and the object with no vacancy, and the wave amplitude reached the maximum on the forehead. This reflects the initial distribution of the syntactic structure of the two groups according to the class information of the vocabulary, and the first stage of the corresponding syntactic processing model (Friederici 1995,2002). Although the observed early negative wave can not effectively distinguish the experimental conditions and the control conditions, these negative waves appear to indicate that the syntactic analyzer has a preliminary perception of the syntactic structure. Compared with the non-null object of the control sentence, under the condition of non-word space violation, the high-level group has a wide distribution of the P600 component related to the syntactically, and the low-level group has a wide distribution of the N400 component related to the semantic processing. This reflects the different processing mechanism of the two groups: when the non-word of the high-level learners in the processing space, the syntactic processing precedes the semantic processing, and the syntactic analyzer can self-repair and re-analyze the whole difficulty, so as to solve the dependency of the filling word and the vacancy; When a low-level learner's non-word in the processing space is processed, the semantic processing is preceded by a syntactic processing. The N400 corresponds to the second stage of the syntactic processing model; the P600 corresponds to the third stage of the syntactic processing model (Friederici,1995,2002). In the case of filling the vacancy violation, the LAN components appear in both the high and low level groups, but the amplitude of the high level is larger and the distribution of the components is wider. This reflects two groups of subjects' perception of morphological and syntactic violations. The absence of the N400 component indicates that the two groups of subjects successfully assigned the title of the noun phrase on the null. The parser rejects the filling word by combining the noun phrase on the empty space into the argument structure of the verb. The semantic access seems to have a clear effect on the illegality of the vacancy structure of the filling word. The results of both experimental conditions support the theory of the shallow structure hypothesis, and the low-level people can not fully extract the grammatical knowledge in their own mind to carry out the deep treatment: but it also partially rejects the theory, and the high-level people seem to be in line with the native language when the complex syntax structure is processed. The syntactic deep processing mechanism can be used for language processing. This study does not seem to support the direct contact hypothesis and the partial support for the semantic re-activation hypothesis that the fill-in vacancy dependency is adjusted by the null and is not dependent on the title role assignment.
【学位授予单位】:东南大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2016
【分类号】:H314

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