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大学英语阅读课上小组互动中的同伴支架研究

发布时间:2019-05-23 02:03
【摘要】:20世纪90年代以来,维果斯基的心智发展学说演变而来的社会文化理论在第二语言习得和教学研究领域的影响力日益增强。“脚手架”一词是从该理论中的中介学习理论和最近发展区理论发展而来的一种隐喻概念,已经被广泛应用于教学活动中。“支架”这一术语比喻暂时的辅助性话语,通过互动,新手(如初学者)在专家(如老师或父母)或其他同伴的帮助下,发展新的技能、观念或者更高水平的理解能力(Maybin,MercerStierer,1992)。对“支架”作用的研究已经成为研究第二语言学习和发展的重点。根据研究对象的不同,可以把“支架”分为教师支架和同伴支架。然而,现有的对“支架”作用的研究主要集中在教师支架上,很少有研究会从社会建构主义理论中的同伴支架或者合作支架的角度去探讨“支架’的类型及作用。研究发现,大部分的中国英语学习者在课堂上与学生的交流和互动都要比与他们的教师的交流和互动频繁。当他们在学习中遇到困难或问题时,他们更喜欢寻求同伴的帮助。合作伙伴之间的对话模式可能比老师的独白式对话模式更加有助于他们问题的解决。因此,为了研究同伴之间是如何提供支架并且同伴支架是如何促进学生的英语学习水平这一问题,本研究在前人的研究基础上采用课堂观察,录音及访谈法研究同伴支架在大学英语阅读课堂上的作用。本研究的语料来源于江西省某高校商务英语英语专业两个大学一年级班级(1班38人,2班37人)共75名学生的大学英语泛读课。作者观察了共12周的英语泛读课(每个班6周,每周1组,共12组)并做了相应的记录和录音。录音时间为每节课的90分钟。研究者根据自己的研究问题和研究目的选择相应的录音材料并对录音数据进行话语转写。为了分析本次研究的数据,研究者既借鉴了前人对同伴支架的类型和作用的分类,又尊重了语料原貌、刻画了语料的细节。学生访谈法作为辅助研究工具。本研究采用定性与定量相结合的方法解决下列三个研究问题:1)大学英语阅读课小组互动中的同伴支架类型有哪些?2)不同类型的同伴支架在大学英语阅读课堂小组互动中的作用是什么?3)不同水平之间的同伴互相提供支架的情况如何?本研究结果表明:第一,课堂观察和数据统计的结果显示,大学英语阅读课堂小组互动中同伴一共存在十种同伴支架行为,分别是引起兴趣,示范,赞扬和鼓励,有意性支架和适时回应性支架,以及情感参与,意义突出,简化任务以及变化和任务管理。第二,不同类型的同伴支架在大学英语阅读课堂小组互动中的作用主要是反馈,纠正错误表达,维持既定目标,提供词汇,控制挫败感,还有提高参与度,提供观点的作用,同伴支架还可以指出理想解决方案与当前产出之间的相关特点及差距。第三,不同水平之间的学生提供的支架作用也不尽相同。本研究有关小组互动中的同伴支架特点对外语教学及二语习得方面的研究都会有一定的参考意义:同伴支架在大学英语课堂小组互动中普遍存在并且对小组互动的有效开展具有积极作用,因此教师应该在外语课堂上积极开展优化同伴支架的有效方法。
[Abstract]:Since the 1990s, the influence of the theory of the social culture, which has evolved from the theory of mental development, has become more and more powerful in the field of second language acquisition and research. The term ""Scaffold"" is a kind of metaphor concept developed from the theory of intermediate learning in the theory and the recent development of the theory of development, and has been widely used in teaching activities. The term ""the support"" is a metaphor for a temporary auxiliary discourse, through which new skills, concepts, or higher levels of understanding (Maybin, MercerSerer,1992) are developed with the help of experts, such as a teacher or a parent, or other peer. The study of "support" has become the focus of the study of second language learning and development. According to the different research objects, the "the support" can be divided into a teacher support and a peer support. However, the existing research on the "support" is mainly focused on the teacher's support, and it is very rare to study the type and function of the "bracket" from the angle of the peer support or the cooperative support in the theory of social constructivism. The study found that most of the Chinese English learners have more and more interaction with their students in the classroom than their teachers. When they encounter difficulties or problems in learning, they prefer to seek help from their peers. The mode of dialogue between partners may be more conducive to the solution of their problems than the teacher's monologue mode of dialogue. Therefore, in order to study how to provide the support and how the peer support can promote the students' English learning level, this study uses the classroom observation, recording and interview method to study the role of the peer support in the college English reading class. The corpus of this study is derived from a total of 75 students in the first-year class (38 in class 1 and 37 in class 2) of the English major in a university in Jiangxi province. The author observed a total of 12 weeks of English Extensive Reading (6 weeks per class,1 group per week,12 groups) and made corresponding records and recordings. The recording time is 90 minutes per class. The investigator selected the corresponding recording material according to his own research questions and the purpose of the study and rewrote the recorded data. In order to analyze the data of this study, the researchers used both the former's classification of the type and function of the peer support, and also respect the original appearance of the corpus and describe the details of the corpus. The student's interview method is used as an auxiliary research tool. This study uses a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to solve the following three research questions:1) What are the types of peer support in the interaction of the College English Reading Group? 2) What is the role of different types of peer support in the interaction of the college English reading class group? 3) How does the partner between different levels provide support to each other? The results of this study show that the results of the first, the classroom observation and the data statistics show that there are ten peer support behaviors in the interaction of the college English reading class group, which are of interest, demonstration, praise and encouragement, the intentional support and the timely response support. And emotional participation, meaning highlighting, simplification of tasks, and change and task management. Second, the role of different types of peer support in the interaction of the college English reading class group is the feedback, the error expression, the maintenance of the target, the provision of vocabulary, the control of the frustration, and the role of increasing the participation, providing the point of view, The peer support can also indicate the relevant characteristics and gaps between the ideal solution and the current output. Third, the role of the support provided by the students between different levels is also different. The study of peer support in the interaction of the group is of reference to the study of the foreign language teaching and the second language acquisition. The peer support is ubiquitous in the interaction of the college English class group and has a positive effect on the effective development of the group interaction. Therefore, the teacher should actively optimize the effective method of the peer support in the foreign language class.
【学位授予单位】:江西师范大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2017
【分类号】:H319.3

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