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锡林郭勒盟草原景观的时空动态和景观服务的权衡分析

发布时间:2019-01-06 13:51  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:景观是评价人地耦合系统、优化人地关系最具操作性的尺度,研究景观功能的空间分布特征和景观服务的供给能力是实现景观可持续性的重要前提。本文基于遥感数据及其GIS技术,以锡林郭勒盟草原景观作为研究对象,分析2000年和2010年锡林郭勒盟草原景观的时空动态变化特征;应用RUSLE和InVEST等模型对研究区的产草量、水源涵养量、土壤保持量和碳储量四个景观服务进行估算;采用R语言相关性分析和GIS加权求和相结合的方法,探讨了四个景观服务之间的权衡与协同关系,并最终对研究区进行空间权衡分析,划分生态功能区。主要结论如下:(1)2000年和2010年锡林郭勒盟草原景观时空动态变化中,耕地面积减少了 2.78%;林地面积变化不大;草地面积增加了 16.52%;水域面积减少了 43.37%。研究区除了水域面积变化较大外,其它景观类型面积在整体上变化不大。(2)研究区草原景观服务的空间分布特征和统计结果表明:2000-2010年研究区的产草量、水源涵养量、土壤保持量和碳储量总体呈上升趋势,分布特征具有明显空间异质性,各植被类型中草甸草原和典型草原对区域景观服务的贡献最大。(3)在研究区范围内,4种草原景观服务之间均呈现协同增益的关系。根据景观服务热点区的分布情况将研究区划分为3类:①东部草原生态经济区:东乌珠穆沁旗东部-西乌珠穆沁旗-锡林浩特市南部-正蓝旗-多伦县-太仆寺旗;②中部草原生态功能提升区:东乌珠穆沁旗西部-锡林浩特市北部-阿巴嘎旗-正镶白旗-镶黄旗;③西部草原恢复保育限制发展区:苏尼特左旗-二连浩特-苏尼特右旗。通过本文研究,可以为揭示各级景观类型的空间分布规律和景观过程特点,探讨景观功能与景观服务之间的关系,认识锡林郭勒盟生态环境所面临的生态环境问题及其对干扰的敏感性,从而为我国温带草原区域的环境管理和国土资源综合整治提供科学依据和数据支持。
[Abstract]:Landscape is the most operable scale to evaluate the human-land coupling system, optimize the man-land relationship, study the spatial distribution characteristics of landscape function and the supply ability of landscape service is an important prerequisite to realize the sustainability of landscape. Based on the remote sensing data and its GIS technology, this paper analyzes the temporal and spatial dynamic characteristics of the grassland landscape in Xilingol League in 2000 and 2010. RUSLE and InVEST models were used to estimate the four landscape services of grass yield, water conservation, soil conservation and carbon storage in the study area. Using the method of R language correlation analysis and GIS weighted summation, this paper discusses the trade-offs and synergies among the four landscape services, and finally carries on spatial tradeoff analysis to the study area and divides the ecological function area. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) in the dynamic changes of grassland landscape in 2000 and 2010, the area of cultivated land decreased by 2.78; the area of forest land did not change much; the area of grassland increased by 16.52; and the area of water decreased by 43.37. Except the area of water area, the area of other landscape types has little change on the whole. (2) the spatial distribution characteristics and statistical results of grassland landscape service in the study area show that the grass yield and water conservation amount of the study area from 2000 to 2010, Soil conservation and carbon storage generally showed an upward trend, and the distribution characteristics showed obvious spatial heterogeneity. Meadow steppe and typical steppe contributed most to the regional landscape service among the vegetation types. (3) in the study area, the meadow steppe and the typical steppe contributed the most to the regional landscape service. The four grassland landscape services showed a synergistic gain relationship. According to the distribution of landscape service hot spots, the study area is divided into three categories: 1 the eastern grassland ecological economic zone: East Uzhimuqin Banner-West Uzhimuqin Banner-the southern part of Xilinhot City-Zhenglan Banner-Duolun County-Taibou Banner; (2) the central grassland ecological function promotion area: West of East Wuzhimuqin Banner-North of Xilinhaote City-Abaga Banner-Zhengxian White Banner-Xianhuang Banner; 3Western grassland Restoration and Conservation restriction Development area: Sunita left Banner-Erlianhaote-Sunita right Banner. Through the study of this paper, we can explore the relationship between landscape function and landscape service in order to reveal the spatial distribution law of landscape types and the characteristics of landscape process. In order to provide scientific basis and data support for environmental management and land and resources comprehensive management in temperate grassland region of China, it is necessary to understand the ecological environmental problems and their sensitivity to interference in the ecological environment of Xilinguole League.
【学位授予单位】:内蒙古大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2017
【分类号】:P901

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