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论纳博科夫艺术世界中的时间

发布时间:2019-01-10 13:10  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:一直以来,纳博科夫艺术世界中的时间受到研究者的普遍关注,并存在不少争议。如关于公认的“时间监狱”观点,学者们对于人类能否冲破其束缚,如何冲破意见不一;纳博科夫的时间观是否来自伯格森生命哲学,是否与海德格尔存在哲学相通仍受热议。目前学界也尚未就纳博科夫对时间观点本身进行系统、深入的探讨,未形成相应理论。 基于以上研究现状,通过梳理作家作品中关于时间、空间的表述,本文初步形成较系统的纳博科夫时间观理论:纳博科夫认为人都生活在前后相继、不断流逝、空间化的时间之中,他把这种生存状态称为“时间监狱”。“时间监狱”中的“时间”是“应用时间”,即被空间腐蚀的、没有人类意识参与的客观的时间。但纳博科夫不认为人只能毫无希望地生活在“时间监狱”之中,他渴望达到“纯粹时间”的自由之境。“纯粹时间”是主观意识参与的时间,是静止的,非空间化的时间。生命中的过往、一切微小的注定灭亡的东西可以在“纯粹时间”里得到保存。而从“应用时间”进入“纯粹时间”的关键在于人的意识作用。通过出离自身审视世界,宇宙同步联系世界,艺术重组改变世界,过去、现在和未来(他们的作品)在意识之光中被结合在一起,从而将“应用时间”的铁牢打开了一道微狭的裂隙,超越了时间之狱。简言之,纳博科夫认为,人类的意识之光可以超越应用时间带来的局限,达到纯粹的时间境界。 在此基础上,本文的第一部分还通过纵向研究,将纳博科夫的这种时间观和历史上其他思想者的时间观进行比较,并对学者们热议的纳博科夫时间观与伯格森、海德格尔思想的关系作出一定的回应,以在宏观视野中把握纳博科夫时间观的特质。 鉴于意识作用始终与时间观密切相连,本文第二部分从“离魂现象”、“宇宙同步”、“艺术重组”三个方面分析纳博科夫笔下人物意识作用的不同形式,探求他们怎样用各自的方式将时间的铁牢打开一道微狭的裂隙,作家如何在艺术世界中实现他的理想。 最后,在对时间观和意识作用研究的基础上,结合作家生平阐述了纳博科夫对生存的理解,并对其时间观进行一定反思。笔者认为,尽管意识作用不是解决问题的根本途径,但纳博科夫带给读者的最大震撼在于:他以艺术家的全部力量反思了存在的有限性,并以自己的方式进行超越。
[Abstract]:The time in Nabokov's art world has been widely concerned by researchers, and there are many controversies. As for the generally accepted view of "time prison", scholars have different opinions on whether human can break through its shackles and how to break through, and whether Nabokov's view of time comes from Bergson's philosophy of life and whether it is connected with Heidegger's philosophy of existence. At present, the academic circle has not systematically discussed Nabokov's view of time, and has not formed the corresponding theory. Based on the above research situation, by combing the expression of time and space in the writers' works, this paper initially forms a more systematic Nabokov's theory of time: Nabokov thinks that people live in succession and continue to pass away. In the space of time, he called this state of existence "time prison." "time" in "time prison" is "applied time", that is, the objective time that is corroded by space and without the participation of human consciousness. But Nabokov did not think that man could only live in a time prison without hope. He longed for the freedom of pure time. Pure time is the time in which subjective consciousness participates. It is static, non-spatial time. The past of life, all tiny doomed things can be preserved in "pure time". The key from "application time" to "pure time" lies in the function of human consciousness. By looking at the world out of itself, the universe synchronously connects the world, art recombines the world, past, present and future (their work) are combined in the light of consciousness, Thus, the "application time" of the iron prison opened a narrow crack, beyond the prison of time. In short, Nabokov believes that the light of human consciousness can transcend the limitations of applied time and reach a pure state of time. The first part of this paper compares Nabokov's view of time with that of other thinkers in history, and compares Nabokov's view of time with Bergson's. Heidegger made a certain response to the relationship in order to grasp the characteristics of Nabokov's view of time. In view of the fact that the role of consciousness is always closely related to the view of time, the second part of this paper analyzes the different forms of the role of consciousness in Nabokov's works from three aspects: "the phenomenon of separation from the soul", "the synchronization of the universe" and "the reorganization of art". Find out how they can open a narrow crack in the iron prison of time in their own way, and how the writer can realize his ideal in the world of art. Finally, on the basis of the study of the role of time and consciousness, the author expounds Nabokov's understanding of existence and reflects on his view of time. The author believes that although the role of consciousness is not the fundamental way to solve the problem, Nabokov's greatest shock to the reader lies in his reflection on the limitation of existence with all the artist's strength, and in his own way to transcend it.
【学位授予单位】:南京大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2012
【分类号】:I712.074

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