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从《流亡记》看开高健的徒劳意识

发布时间:2019-06-20 05:44
【摘要】:开高健是战后日本文学界最重要的作家之一。开高健1930年出生于大阪,童年时第二次世界大战爆发,他的青春期就是在战争中度过的。1957年,开高健在《新日本文学》发表了第一部小说——《恐慌》,光芒初现,受到了广泛好评。同年,《巨人与玩具》《皇帝的新衣》等一一发表,,其中,开高健凭借《皇帝的新衣》荣获芥川文学奖。此外,《璀璨的黑暗》荣获每日出版文化奖,《玉碎》荣获川端康成文学奖,《耳朵的故事》荣获日本文学大奖。开高健的作品不仅给他带来了众多荣誉,还带来了界内的认可。 本文主要通过分析开高健的初期作品——《流亡记》中体现出的种种徒劳,由此探讨开高健的徒劳意识的形成原因。《流亡记》中描绘的故事发生在中国秦朝。小说首先讲述了一个无名小镇的遭遇。自古以来,这个小镇都接连不断地遭到侵略,然而小镇的居民却对侵略者完全不抵抗,只是不断地修补那道丝毫没有防御作用的城墙。全国统一后,秦始皇掌握了政权,随之而来的是一段短暂而和平的日子。突然有一天,小镇来了一群看起来跟以前的侵略者毫无差别的人,他们用一根长绳将小镇分成两半,其中一半的壮丁被当成罪犯抓了起来。根据皇帝的命令,这些壮丁被宪兵追赶着,浩浩汤汤地奔赴首都,开始了修建长城这一艰难的工程,牺牲了自由甚至生命。然而,原本为防御匈奴而动员全国人民建造的长城,实际上与前面小镇里面的城墙的性质是相同的,最后不过是一场巨大的徒劳罢了。 1959年《流亡记》在《别册中央公论》上发表之后,收到了巨大的反响。对于《流亡记》,很多评论家从“徒劳”主题与问题等角度入手,但他们的研究主要在于探讨开高健的“徒劳意识”的表现形式,及其对战后日本社会的强烈不满等。不能忽视的是,存在主义思想以及开高健自身的人生经历也会对他的徒劳意识形成产生巨大的影响。这对于理解《流亡记》的内容与中心思想不可或缺,因此,拙论将通过文本分析,具体解读文中徒劳的表现形式,并探究其中存在主义思想以及开高健个人经历与其徒劳意识之间的联系。 《流亡记》中,小镇的居民软弱无能,面对侵略,他们只能一次次地修补城墙,除此之外束手无策。自然他们的努力最终都化作徒劳,对于侵略也丝毫没有抵御作用。此外,侵略小镇的士兵们也对自己的侵略目的毫无概念,茫然地入侵小镇,又茫然地被新的侵略者杀害,他们的侵略行为自然也成为徒劳。秦统一全国以后,大量壮丁被政府征作苦役,开始了艰苦的劳动。同时,宪兵与收税吏们为了实现皇帝的意志,不得不面对庞杂到几乎无法完成的工作,并且但凡有半点差错就会马上丢掉性命。由此可见,宪兵与收税吏,在本质上同壮丁一样,都是非常无力的存在。徒劳归根结底还是由政权导致的。秦始皇为了维护政权,除了命令全国建造毫无实用价值的长城以外,还制定了许多浪费大量人力财力、引发民怨的政策,积怨爆发,最后一切都成为了徒劳。 对于开高健的徒劳意识的形成原因,笔者首先从存在主义思想对开高健的影响进行了探讨。在法国的诸多实存主义哲学家、文学家之中,笔者认为,其中卡夫卡、加缪、萨特三者对开高健产生的影响最为巨大。其中,在开高健的初期文学作品中,我们能看到卡夫卡文学独有的孤独与荒谬思想,加缪的以存在主义思想为核心的人道主义精神,以及萨特的“存在先于本质”、“人类有自由选择自己的行为的权利”、“人类社会本来就是荒谬的”等思想。这些思想对开高健的徒劳意识的形成产生了巨大的引导作用。其次,笔者从开高健个人的人生经历出发进行了探讨。开高健的文学创作初期正值躁郁症的重症期,因此,《流亡记》中体现出的“无力感”、“徒劳感”一方面是开高健在冷静分析的基础上,展现出对于日本社会经济发展的忧虑,另一方面,从某种程度上讲,这可能也是他“忧郁”的本性决定他对事物的看法都趋于悲观的一种表现。此外,他经历了充满战争动乱的少年时代,经历过战败,这些因素让他不得不对战后日本社会狂热追求经济发展这一现状产生不满。而这种不满,从某种程度上讲,也构成了开高健“徒劳文学”的基础。 拙论主要探讨了《流亡记》中体现出的开高健的徒劳意识的表现及形成原因。谈到存在主义对开高健的影响时,具体以卡夫卡、加缪、萨特为中心进行了讨论,但笔者深知存在主义对于开高健的徒劳意识的影响一定不仅限与此。此外,日本古典文学中,“无常”、“徒劳”的思想也比比皆是,例如《源氏物语》《方丈记》等。对于热爱“乱读”的开高健来说,日本古典文学作品中的这种思想对他徒劳意识的形成也应该产生了一定的影响。但由于篇幅与资料的限制,无法对这些问题进行逐一探究,笔者将其作为今后的课题进行进一步的探讨。
[Abstract]:Gao Jian is one of the most important writers in the post-war Japanese literary world. Born in the Great Wall in 1930 and the Second World War in his childhood, his adolescence was spent in the war. In 1957, Kaifeng was widely praised by the New Japanese Literature, the first novel, "Panic." In the same year, the "giants and toys" and" the new clothes of the emperor "were published one by one, among which, Gao Jian, with the won the Sichuan-end Conforming Literature Award, and the" Story of the Ear "has been awarded the Japanese Literature Award. Gao Jian's work not only brought him a great number of honors, but also brought within the bounds of recognition. This paper mainly analyses the futility embodied in the early works of Gao Jian, and discusses the formation of the futility consciousness of Gao Jian. The story depicted in the "Eexile" is in the Qin Dynasty of China In the first part of the novel, the story of an unknown town An affair. Since ancient times, the small town has been constantly invaded, but the residents of the small town are totally out of resistance to the aggressors, and only constantly mend the city that has no defense. The wall. After the unification of the country, the Qin Shihuang was in possession of the regime, followed by a brief and peaceful day. One day, a small town came to a group of people that appeared to have no difference with the former invaders, and they used a long rope to divide the town into two, half of which were treated as a criminal. Here, according to the emperor's order, these strong men were followed by the gendarmes, and in the capital of the great soup, the hard work of building the Great Wall was started, and the freedom and even life were sacrificed. However, the Great Wall, which was originally built for the defense of the Huns and mobilized the people of the whole country, was in fact the same as the nature of the walls in the town, but it was a great futility. In 1959, after the publication of the Central Public Opinion on the Book of Exiles, a great deal was received. The response to the "exile", many of the critics, from the perspective of "futility" subject and problem, but their research is mainly to explore the expression of the "futility of the high and healthy" and its strong influence on the post-war Japanese society. Dissatisfaction and so on. It can't be ignored that the existence of the Existentialism and the life experience of Gao Jian will also have a great effect on his futility. It is essential for the understanding of the content and the central thought of the exoduses. Therefore, the theory of realism will be analyzed by the text, and the expression of the futility in the text will be explained in detail, and the existence of the concept of the Existentialism as well as the personal experience of Gao Jian and its futility are explored. In exile, the inhabitants of the small town are weak and are faced with aggression, and they can only repair the walls again and again, in addition to this There's nothing to do with it. Naturally, their efforts are in vain, and there's no way of aggression. In addition, the soldiers of the small town of aggression have no concept of their own aggression, and the invasion of small towns and the killing of new aggressors, their acts of aggression nature It was in vain. After the unification of the country, a great deal of Zhuang was taken by the government and started. Hard work. At the same time, the Gendarmerie and the tax collectors, in order to achieve the will of the emperor, have to face a complex and almost impossible job, but any one with a half-point error will be a horse. It can be seen that the gendarmes and the tax collectors are, in essence, the same as the Zhuang, and are very The existence of weakness. In vain or in vain As a result of the regime, the Emperor of the Qin Dynasty, in order to safeguard the regime, has made a lot of waste of human and financial resources in addition to the command of the building of the great wall that is of no practical value in the whole country, In vain. For the reason of the formation of the futility of Kao Kang Jian, the author first from the existentialist thought to Gao Jian. The influence has been discussed in this paper. In France, the author holds that Kafka, Camus and Sartre are one of the three main elements. The most significant influence is, among them, in the early literary works of Gao Jian, we can see the unique loneliness and the absurd thought of Kafka's literature, the humanist spirit of Camus's core of the existentialism, and the "The existence precedes the essence", "Human beings have the right to choose their own behavior", and the "The human society is preposterous." "futility", on the one hand, is on the basis of the calm analysis, showing the anxiety of the economic development of the Japanese society, and on the other hand, To some extent, this may also be his "depression" 's nature, and his views on things tend to In addition, he has experienced a war-troubled youth, and has been defeated, and these factors let him have to pursue the economic development of the post-war Japanese society The current situation is discontented, and this dissatisfaction, to a certain extent, also constitutes a "fuzziterature" ", this paper mainly discusses the futility of Gao Jian, which is embodied in the "exodexiles". In the light of the influence of Existentialism, it is discussed by Kafka, Camus and Sartre, but the author is well aware of the futility of the Existentialism. The influence must not only be limited to this. In addition, in the Japanese classical literature, the "impermanence" and the "in vain" 's thoughts are all, for example, 【学位授予单位】:吉林大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2014
【分类号】:I313.074

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