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蔚县秧歌调查与研究

发布时间:2019-01-11 10:37
【摘要】: 蔚县秧歌,又称蔚州秧歌、蔚州梆子,也曾称蔚剧,主要产生于河北蔚县、山西广灵县一带,流传于张家口地区以及山西广灵、灵丘一带。 作为一个地方小剧种,蔚县秧歌萌芽于明末清初,崛起于花雅之争,繁荣于清末民初。经历了形成演变时期、繁荣兴盛时期、抗战和解放战争的衰落时期,以及建国后的发展新时期,共四大时期。其形成演变时期又经历了三个阶段:戏剧萌芽阶段(民间社火中具有戏剧因素的艺术表演形式)、民间小戏阶段(“两小”、“三小”的民间小戏)、成熟剧种阶段(吸收梆子声腔后的成熟的地方剧种)。成熟之后的蔚县秧歌,命运跌宕起伏,历经坎坷,迄今走过近400年的历史。 蔚县秧歌独树一帜:语言土俗浓郁,具有乡土气息;音乐体制独特,既有训调之优美,又具梆子之浑厚;表演体制完备,角色行当齐全,唱做俱佳;舞美体制充实,化妆、服装、砌末装置虚实结合,写意传神;剧本内容朴实、思想内涵丰富。因此,成为了蔚县人民十分喜爱的表演艺术形式,延续至今。 蔚县秧歌具有重要的戏曲史地位,在音乐板式上创造了传统梆子声腔中所没有的〖大悠板〗,后来河北梆子中的〖大慢板〗与之显然一脉相承。可见,其并非简单的小戏,而在近代戏曲声腔、剧种演变过程中扮演着重要的角色。 目前蔚县秧歌面临十分困难的处境,生存状态岌岌可危:秧歌艺人减少,其传承后继乏人;剧本散失殆尽,保存很少;其赖以生存的民俗文化环境也遭到破坏。为保护这一濒临灭绝的地方剧种,蔚县秧歌已于2006年列入河北省首批非物质文化遗产名录,2008年列入第一批国家级非物质文化遗产扩展名录。即便如此,需要我们完成的工作还有很多。 本文是在戏曲田野调查的前提下,在前人研究的基础之上,结合学科内部及传播学理论与非物质文化遗产保护理论的研究成果,从戏曲史、戏曲文学、戏曲民俗、戏曲文物的角度,对蔚县秧歌这一既具有历史文化遗产性,又濒临消亡的地方剧种做一最大程度的关注与全面的研究。从而总结出蔚县秧歌作为戏曲剧种的艺术价值与文化价值,提出可行性的保护措施,展望其发展前景。本文认为,蔚县秧歌的发展面临着和其他戏曲剧种同样的问题,我们亟需为之创造良好的生存环境,并使之走入良性发展的轨道。
[Abstract]:Yuxian Yangge, also known as Weizhou Yangge, Wei Zhou Bangzi, also known as Wei opera, mainly produced in Hebei Yuxian, Shanxi Guangling County area, spread in the Zhangjiakou area and Shanxi Guangling, Lingqiu area. As a small local drama, Yuxian Yangge sprout in late Ming and early Qing Dynasty, rose in the struggle of flower elegance, and flourished in the late Qing Dynasty and early Republic of China. During the period of formation and evolution, prosperity and prosperity, the decline of the War of Resistance against Japan and the War of Liberation, and the new period of development after the founding of the people's Republic of China, there were four major periods. Its formation and evolution period has experienced three stages: the budding stage of drama (the artistic form of performing with dramatic factors in folk society fire), the stage of folk play ("two small", "three small" folk drama), Mature stage of opera, ie the mature local opera after absorbing the sound of Bangzi. After mature Yuxian Yangge, the fate ups and downs, after rough, so far through nearly 400 years of history. Yuxian Yangge is unique: rich language, local flavor; unique music system, both the beautiful training tone, but also Bangzi, complete performance system, complete roles, singing and doing well; Dance system full, makeup, clothing, masonry installation of the combination of reality, freehand brushwork; simple content, rich in ideological content. As a result, it has become a popular form of performing art among the people of Yuxian, and continues to this day. Yuxian Yangge plays an important role in the history of opera, creating the traditional Bangzi in the style of music, not in the "big long board", Hebei Bangzi later in the "big slow board" is obviously the same as it. Therefore, it is not a simple play, but plays an important role in the evolution of modern opera. At present Yuxian Yangge is faced with a very difficult situation and its living condition is at risk: the Yangge artists are reduced and its succession is lacking; the script is lost and little is preserved; the folk cultural environment on which it depends is also destroyed. In order to protect this endangered local drama species, Yuxian Yangge was listed in the first batch of intangible cultural heritage list in Hebei Province in 2006 and the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage expanded list in 2008. Even so, much remains to be done. On the premise of field investigation of opera, on the basis of previous studies, this paper combines the research results of the theory of internal discipline and communication and the theory of protection of intangible cultural heritage, from the history of opera, drama literature, opera folk, From the angle of cultural relics of opera, the Yangge of Yuxian County, which is not only historical and cultural heritage, but also close to the extinction of the local drama to do a maximum degree of attention and comprehensive research. Thus summarized the Yuxian Yangge as the opera drama art value and cultural value, put forward the feasible protection measures, prospects for its development. This paper holds that the development of Yangge in Yuxian is faced with the same problems as other operas, and we urgently need to create a good living environment for it, and make it into the track of benign development.
【学位授予单位】:山西师范大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2009
【分类号】:J825

【引证文献】

相关博士学位论文 前1条

1 刘兴利;山西北路梆子研究[D];山西师范大学;2012年

相关硕士学位论文 前2条

1 张雯;山东海阳秧歌调查与研究[D];山西师范大学;2010年

2 郝卫平;八大角秧歌调查与研究[D];山西师范大学;2010年



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