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弗莱的神话原型理论在中国的传播与运用

发布时间:2019-02-11 21:11  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:本文在对弗莱的神话原型理论进行阐释的同时,也对此种理论在中国的发展和进行情况进行了分析。二十世纪八十年代在中国突然兴起了神话原型理论研究热,出现了大量的译著和研究成果。国内学者开始将原型理论与中国文学现象结合,产生了很多角度新颖、内容丰厚的文章。神话原型理论在理论风暴的时代中仍能脱颖而出,成为在中国最具有影响力的理论批评之一,离不开中国广大学者对学术研究的热爱。 本文通过弗莱对弗雷泽和荣格继承和发展进行了介绍,更深刻的理解弗莱神话原型理论产生的基石。弗雷泽是人类学家,他的《金枝》给弗莱以原型上的启蒙,这些原始的宗教典籍是远古人民遗留给现代人类宝贵的思想财富。弗莱的研究方法主要也是通过阅读大量神话故事以及文学作品运用类比法进行的理论论证。所以,弗莱的研究方法与弗雷泽的方法有异曲同工之处。作为一名精神病医生荣格的集体无意识学说对文学上的影响是巨大的。荣格从心理学分析认为,文学中的原型封存在人类祖先的记忆中,现代人“遗传”了这种记忆。这种原型记忆不仅仅有利于创作主体的创作,还对读者产生一定的影响。当读者阅读时与原始中的记忆产生共鸣时,,会有种来自于远古的召唤力量,弗莱对此很认同。研究弗莱必须对弗莱的文学观和批评观进行了解,从而揭示了弗莱的文学观是:神话模仿的是自然,而其后的作品模仿的是神话。文学批评观是文学批评不仅独立于文学,同时独立于其他学科。隐喻和神话是神话原型理论的核心,论述了隐喻的神话是神话的隐喻的前提。而后阐释了神话原型中具有世界影响力的重要的理论U型叙事,U型叙事在世界文学中广泛运用着。在第三部分中,对神话原型批评在中国传播时的社会语境以及传播历程进行了阐述,主要有全球化的大语境和中国所独有的文化环境的需要。继而对神话原型在中国的发展分为初始期、鼎盛期和变异期。在中国的传播始在台湾;在中国发展最繁荣的时间段于20世纪80——90年代。弗莱的方法论原则是将文学定位于文化,尤其是圣经文化中。弗莱所要建立的是一种适合全世界的大文化观体系,而韩少功等一批寻根文化学者借鉴弗莱研究方法,把文学同中国传统的、地方的文化结合起来创作,显然是只是在方法上做了借用。在最后一部分中,列举了两位对神话原型理论在中国发展做出突出贡献的学者——叶舒宪和方克强。两位学者都注重跨文化研究,但叶舒宪目光焦点放在中国人类学上,而方克强是将中国文学和外国文学放在同等地位上的研究。
[Abstract]:While explaining Frey's mythological archetypal theory, this paper also analyzes the development and development of this theory in China. In 1980's, there was a great deal of translation and research on mythological archetypal theory in China. Domestic scholars began to combine archetypal theory with Chinese literary phenomena, producing many novel and rich articles. The mythological archetypal theory can still stand out in the era of theoretical storm and become one of the most influential theoretical criticism in China, which can not be separated from the love of Chinese scholars for academic research. This paper introduces Frazier and Jung's inheritance and development through Frye, and deeply understands the foundation of Frei's mythological archetypal theory. Frazier is an anthropologist whose golden branch enlightens Fry archetypically. These primitive religious books are precious intellectual wealth left by ancient people to modern human beings. Frey's research method is mainly through reading a large number of mythological stories and literary works through the use of analogy theory. Therefore, Frye's research method and Frazier's method have similarities and differences. As a psychiatrist, Jung's theory of collective unconsciousness has a great impact on literature. From the psychological analysis, Jung believes that the archetypes in literature are sealed in the memory of human ancestors, which is inherited by modern people. This archetypal memory is not only conducive to the creation of the creative subject, but also has a certain impact on the reader. When the reader resonates with the original memory, there is an ancient calling power that Frey agrees with. The study of Frye must understand Fry's literary and critical views, thus revealing that Fry's literary view is that mythology imitates nature, while later works mimic mythology. Literary criticism is not only independent of literature, but also independent of other disciplines. Metaphor and mythology are the core of mythological archetype theory. This paper discusses that metaphorical mythology is the premise of mythical metaphor. Then it explains the important theory of U-type narration which has the world influence in the mythological archetype, and U-type narration is widely used in the world literature. In the third part, the author expounds the social context and communication process of mythological archetypal criticism in China, mainly in the context of globalization and the needs of the unique cultural environment of China. Then the development of mythological archetype in China is divided into initial period, heyday period and variation period. The spread in China began in Taiwan; the most prosperous period in China was in the 1980-90 s. Frye's methodological principle is to position literature in culture, especially in biblical culture. What Fry wants to establish is a system of great cultural views suitable for the whole world, and Han Shaogong and other root-seeking cultural scholars draw lessons from Fry's research methods and combine literature with Chinese traditional and local cultures to create works. Obviously it's just a method of borrowing. In the last part, two scholars, Ye Shuxian and Fang Keqiang, who have made outstanding contributions to the development of mythological archetypal theory in China are listed. Both scholars pay attention to cross-cultural studies, but Ye Shuxian focuses on Chinese anthropology, while Fang Keqiang puts Chinese literature and foreign literature on the same footing.
【学位授予单位】:沈阳师范大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2012
【分类号】:I0

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