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现代汉语例证类话语标记研究

发布时间:2018-09-14 20:51  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:话语标记是语言交际中常见的一种现象,它们不参与句子信息的构建,主要用来引导和制约人们的交际。日常交际中存在着大量的例证类话语标记,用以标示说话人对于现实依据的态度和立场。迄今为止,此类标记的研究只零星散见于篇什。 例证类话语标记指的是能够引述事例并且具有连接作用的语用成分。根据充当例证类话语标记的成分,可以将此类话语标记分为单词类和短语类;从话语标记与后续成分的附着关系,可以将此类话语标记分为黏着式和自由式;从标记形式的完备性上,可以将此类话语标记分为框架式和完整式。不同类别的话语标记在逻辑关系、语体、开放性程度等方面存在着差异。例证类话语标记在交际中主要具有举例、话题、假设和连接这四种功能,体现不同功能的例证类话语标记对其后续成分有一定的选择性。体现举例功能时,话语标记所受到的句法制约较弱,后续成分可以是短语,也可以是小句;体现话题功能和连接功能时,话语标记的后续成分则偏向于小句;体现假设功能时,话语标记的后续成分则一定是小句。 从关联理论和连贯理论角度来看,例证类话语标记的语用功能主要体现在话语的生成和理解、语篇的构建以及人际互动等方面,它们可以加强说话人的主观性,激活认知背景,限定话题内容、引入新信息、衔接语篇连贯、建立交际关系等,而这几种功能往往会重叠交叉使用。 充当例证类话语标记的成分可以是单词,也可以是短语,还可以是单词/短语和人称代词“你”的组合结构,不同类的例证类话语标记都是语言系统历时演变的结果。单词类例证标记语法化的过程中大都先经历了词汇化,不同句法层面上的成分经过重新分析后确认为一个独立的词,再向副词虚化,虚化的过程中伴随着语义的虚化、句法功能的改变以及语用的扩张,最终演化为例证类话语标记。短语类例证标记则在单词类例证标记的基础上与其他语言成分进一步组合虚化而来。不同成员之间虚化的程度并不一致,语法化过程中各种机制发挥的作用也不尽相同。“比如”的虚化过程中,类推演变起了主要作用,而“好比”的虚化过程中,隐喻机制发挥了主要作用,“你”的选择性上主观化和交互主观化占据了主导位置。在对例证类话语标记的成员及其主要功能进行共时描写的基础上,从历时角度考察它们形成的过程及形成机制,可以对现代汉语例证类话语标记的功能作出更为充分的解释。
[Abstract]:Discourse markers are a common phenomenon in language communication. They do not participate in the construction of sentence information and are mainly used to guide and restrict people's communication. There are a large number of illustrative discourse markers in daily communication, which are used to indicate the speaker's attitude and position on the basis of reality. Up to now, the study of such markers has been scattered in the papers. Illustrative discourse markers refer to pragmatic elements that can quote examples and are connected. This kind of discourse markers can be classified into word type and phrase type according to their components, and can be classified into adhesive type and freestyle type according to the attachment relationship between discourse markers and subsequent components. This kind of discourse markers can be divided into frame type and complete form from the completeness of marker form. Different types of discourse markers differ in logic, style and openness. Illustrative discourse markers have four functions in communication: example, topic, hypothesis and connection. The illustrative discourse markers, which embody different functions, have certain selectivity to their subsequent components. In the case of illustrative function, the syntactic constraints of discourse markers are weak, and the following components can be phrases or clauses; when they embody topic function and connective function, the follow-up elements of discourse markers tend to be clauses; when they embody hypothetical functions, the following elements of discourse markers tend to be clauses. The following components of discourse markers must be clauses. From the perspective of relevance theory and coherence theory, the pragmatic functions of illustrative discourse markers are mainly embodied in the generation and understanding of discourse, the construction of discourse and interpersonal interaction, which can enhance the subjectivity of the speaker and activate the cognitive background. Limiting topic content, introducing new information, cohesive text coherence, establishing communication relations, and so on, these functions often overlap and cross use. The elements that act as example discourse markers can be words or phrases, and can also be the combination structure of words / phrases and personal pronouns "you". Different types of illustrative discourse markers are the result of the diachronic evolution of language system. In the process of grammaticalization of lexical illustrative markers, most of them have experienced lexicalization first. After re-analysis of the components at different syntactic levels, they are recognized as an independent word, followed by the vacuity of the adverb, which is accompanied by semantic nihilization in the process of the grammaticalization of lexical illustrative markers. The change of syntactic function and the expansion of pragmatics finally evolve into illustrative discourse markers. Phrase-class illustration marks are combined with other language components on the basis of word-class illustrative markers. Different members have different degrees of virtualization and different mechanisms play different roles in the process of grammaticalization. In the process of "for example", analogy plays a major role, but in the process of "like", the mechanism of metaphor plays a major role, and the subjective and interactive subjectivization of "you" takes the dominant position. On the basis of the synchronic description of the members and their main functions of illustrative discourse markers, a diachronic study of their formation process and formation mechanism can fully explain the functions of example discourse markers in modern Chinese.
【学位授予单位】:扬州大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2013
【分类号】:H13

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