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环境噪声应激对人体生理心理影响的实验室研究

发布时间:2019-05-24 02:28
【摘要】: 随着现代城市建设和交通的发展,城市环境噪声污染已经成为世界各国大城市面临的一个重要环境问题,噪声污染随着机械加工业、建筑业和交通业的发展而更加突出。噪声污染严重影响了人们正常的工作、学习和休息。噪声污染投诉事件数量一直居各类环境污染诉讼事件的首位,直接影响了社会安定和社会正常秩序。随着社会进步、经济发展和生活水平的不断提高,人类对自身的健康和生活环境也越来越关注,环境噪声控制己成为城市环境保护和社会发展的重要工作内容,国际上一些大城市己提出“建立一个清洁和安静的城市”的目标。因此,噪声污染早已成为科学工作者相继研究的重要课题。本论文由四个主要由部分组成,一是对噪声的实地调研;二是对典型的噪声进行现场监测和分析;三是采集典型噪声类型并对其进行声学特性分析;四是以噪声为刺激源进行人体生理实验。 噪声调研的结果表明接近31.7%的受访者把噪声列为第一大污染,噪声俨然成为影响受访者生活、工作的首要因素。通过对两类典型噪声生活噪声和交通噪声的分析我们发现,这两类噪声都是以低频噪声为主,生活噪声的发生和变化规律和人们的社会行为活动密切相关,而交通噪声受中小型车流量的影响最大。在以噪声为刺激源的生理实验中,我们发现:持续噪声暴露对男性短时记忆能力有影响,对女性无影响。在噪声暴露15分钟能促进男性短时记忆能力的提高;持续的噪声暴露对人体感觉神经传导速度和第二潜伏期并无直接影响,但却引起两者相互作用的显著改变;通过烦恼度测试发现在相同的噪声环境下,男性受试者比女性更容易感到烦恼,且男性对噪声环境的适应能力比女性要弱,需要用更长的时间来适应,受试者的烦恼度和噪声暴露时间呈正相关;实验受试者的问卷调查结果表明噪声对其的影响趋势和烦恼度、舒适度的实验结果一致。客观的生理实验和主观问卷调查均显示,离开噪声环境恢复15分钟,并不能完全消除噪声刺激对人体的影响。
[Abstract]:With the development of modern urban construction and traffic, urban environmental noise pollution has become an important environmental problem faced by big cities all over the world. Noise pollution is more prominent with the development of mechanical processing industry, construction industry and transportation industry. Noise pollution seriously affects people's normal work, study and rest. The number of noise pollution complaints has always been the first of all kinds of environmental pollution litigation events, which directly affects social stability and social normal order. With the social progress, economic development and the continuous improvement of living standards, human beings pay more and more attention to their own health and living environment. Environmental noise control has become an important part of urban environmental protection and social development. Some big cities in the world have put forward the goal of "building a clean and quiet city." Therefore, noise pollution has long become an important topic for scientists to study one after another. This paper consists of four main parts, one is the field investigation of noise, the other is the field monitoring and analysis of typical noise, the third is to collect the typical noise type and analyze its acoustic characteristics. Fourth, the physiological experiment of human body is carried out with noise as the source of stimulation. The results of noise survey show that nearly 31.7% of the interviewees listed noise as the largest pollution, and noise has become the primary factor affecting the life and work of the interviewees. Through the analysis of two kinds of typical noise, life noise and traffic noise, we find that these two kinds of noise are mainly low frequency noise, and the occurrence and change of life noise are closely related to people's social behavior activities. Traffic noise is the most affected by the flow of small and medium-sized vehicles. In the physiological experiment with noise as the source of stimulation, we found that persistent noise exposure had an effect on the short-term memory ability of men, but had no effect on women. Continuous noise exposure had no direct effect on sensory nerve conduction velocity and the second latent period of human body, but caused significant changes in the interaction between the two, but the continuous noise exposure could promote the improvement of male short-term memory ability after 15 minutes of noise exposure, but the continuous noise exposure had no direct effect on the sensory nerve conduction velocity and the second latent period of human sensory nerve. Through the annoyance test, it was found that in the same noise environment, the male subjects were more likely to feel annoyed than the female, and the male adaptability to the noisy environment was weaker than that of the female, so it took longer to adapt. There was a positive correlation between annoyance and noise exposure time. The results of questionnaire survey showed that the influence trend, annoyance and comfort of noise on it were consistent. Objective physiological experiments and subjective questionnaires showed that 15 minutes away from noise environment could not completely eliminate the effect of noise stimulation on human body.
【学位授予单位】:重庆大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2006
【分类号】:R395

【引证文献】

相关硕士学位论文 前2条

1 苏俊溪;中新天津生态城交通噪声控制规划研究[D];天津大学;2012年

2 明雷;绿化带对临街建筑声环境影响的实验研究[D];重庆大学;2012年



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