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樱桃谷鸭与不同地方品种鸭经济杂交后代生产性能比较

发布时间:2018-09-14 20:53  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:在我国优质肉鸭的培育研究中,对于快大型肉鸭与我国地方鸭品种之间杂交研究甚少,杂交模式与经济效益也鲜有研究。本试验采用人工授精技术将樱桃谷鸭与我国优良蛋鸭品种(金定鸭、攸县麻鸭、莆田黑鸭、绍兴鸭)进行杂交,通过杂交亲本的筛选、组合模式以及杂交后代生产性能比较,为我国优质肉鸭的培育和生产模式研发提供参考资料。1.杂交父本的筛选。引入三种候选父本:樱桃谷鸭(快大型、白羽)、广东肉麻鸭(快大型、麻羽)及重庆白鸭(中型、白羽)。同样条件下饲养至相同出栏体重(1.9kg左右),比较发现,樱桃谷鸭生长至出栏体重需要29d,料肉比1.66;广东肉麻鸭需要35d,料肉比1.98;重庆白鸭需要53d,料肉比2.70;在屠宰性能方面,广东肉麻鸭与重庆白鸭差异不显著(P0.05),均显著高于樱桃谷鸭(P0.05)。综合分析表明,樱桃谷鸭早期生长速度快,饲料报酬高,养殖经济效益好,符合杂交父本所需特点,因此,选择樱桃谷鸭为杂交父本。2.杂交母本的筛选。对杂交母本(金定鸭、攸县麻鸭、莆田黑鸭、绍兴鸭)的生长及生产性能进行测定后发现,金定鸭体重增长速度最快,初生重、105d体重及300d体重均极显著大于其它蛋鸭品种(P0.01),攸县麻鸭体重最小,300d体重极显著小于其它蛋鸭品种(P0.01)。在产蛋性能方面,攸县麻鸭见蛋、50%开产日龄最早,产蛋高峰期产蛋率表现为:攸县麻鸭金定鸭莆田黑鸭与绍兴鸭,且差异极显著(P0.01);产蛋高峰期料蛋比:攸县麻鸭与金定鸭差异不显著(P0.05),均极显著小于绍兴鸭与莆田黑鸭(P0.01)。攸县麻鸭产蛋性能最佳,金定鸭产蛋性能略低于攸县麻鸭,但其所产鸭蛋蛋重极显著大于其它蛋鸭品种(P0.01),且青壳比例最高。3.通过人工授精技术解决樱桃谷鸭与蛋鸭品种之间体型差异导致交配困难的问题。成功通过母禽诱情法采集樱桃谷父母代公鸭精液,平均采精量为0.62±0.28 ml。对各蛋鸭品种母鸭进行翻肛输精,每隔4天输精一次,种蛋受精率可达70%~80%,可应用于实际生产;种蛋受精率在输精后第一天最高,之后逐天下降;输精第一天后,攸县麻鸭种蛋受精率最高,为86.24%,显著高于莆田黑鸭71.63%(P0.05)。采用人工授精模式,公母配比达到1:27,樱桃谷公鸭利用率比自然交配模式提高了五倍。4.对不同杂交组合后代生长、屠宰性能及肉品质测定后发现:各杂交组合后代生长速度介于亲本之间,相较于杂交母本均有大幅提升;不同杂交组合后代饲养至45d,体重可达2.3~2.4 kg,料肉比2.7~2.8,成活率均高于樱桃谷鸭;除樱莆鸭后代外,其他杂交后代的屠宰性能均优于樱桃谷鸭。各组杂交后代饲养至70d体重增加趋于平缓,其肌肉脂肪含量与嫩度均极显著优于樱桃谷鸭(P0.01),且胸肌蛋白含量高于樱桃谷鸭,肉品质较好。5.在不同杂交组合中,樱桃谷鸭与金定鸭杂交后代的45d成活率最高、活重最大、料肉比最低且全净膛率最高;同时其受精蛋出雏率最高,杂交母本金定鸭产蛋性能优良,所产青壳鸭蛋更受市场欢迎。综上所述,确定樱桃谷鸭与金定鸭为最优杂交组合。
[Abstract]:In the breeding of high-quality ducks in China, there is little research on the cross between fast-growing ducks and local duck breeds in China, and there is little research on the cross-breeding model and economic benefits. The selection of parents, the comparison of their combinations and the production performance of their offspring will provide reference for the development of high-quality meat ducks in China. 1. Selection of hybrid fathers. Three candidate fathers were introduced: Cherry Valley duck (fast-growing, white-feathered), Guangdong flax duck (fast-growing, flax-feathered) and Chongqing white duck (medium-sized, white-feathered). The results showed that it took 29 days for Cherry Valley duck to grow to the weight of the duck, and the feed-to-meat ratio was 1.66; Guangdong meat-to-meat ratio was 1.98; Chongqing white duck was 53 days and the feed-to-meat ratio was 2.70; there was no significant difference in slaughter performance between Guangdong meat-to-meat duck and Chongqing white duck (P 0.05), which was significantly higher than Cherry Valley duck (P 0.05). The combined analysis showed that Cherry Valley duck grew fast in the early stage, had high feed reward, and had good economic benefit. Therefore, Cherry Valley duck was selected as the hybrid male parent. 2. Screening of hybrid female parent. The growth and production performance of hybrid female parent (Jinding duck, Youxian Ma duck, Putian black duck, Shaoxing duck) were determined. The body weight of ducks increased fastest, the birth weight, 105-day weight and 300-day weight of ducks were significantly higher than those of other laying ducks (P 0.01), Youxian Ma Duck was the smallest, and 300-day weight was significantly lower than that of other laying ducks (P 0.01). Putian black duck and Shaoxing duck were significantly different (P 0.01); the feed-to-egg ratio of Youxian Ma duck and Jinding duck were not significantly different (P 0.05) during the peak laying season, which were significantly less than Shaoxing duck and Putian black duck (P 0.01). Youxian Ma duck had the best egg-laying performance and Jinding duck laying performance was slightly lower than Youxian Ma duck, but the egg weight of Jinding duck was significantly higher than other laying ducks. Variety (P 0.01), and the proportion of green shell was the highest.3. Artificial insemination was used to solve the problem of difficult mating between Cherry Valley Duck and laying duck breeds. After the first day of insemination, the fertilization rate of breeding eggs in Youxian was 86.24%, which was significantly higher than that of Putian black duck 71.63%(P 0.05). The growth, slaughter performance and meat quality of offspring from different cross combinations were tested. The results showed that the growth rate of offspring from different cross combinations was between their parents, which was much higher than that of their parents. The offspring from different cross combinations weighed 2.3-2.4 kg and the ratio of feed to meat was 2.7-2.8, and the survival rate was high when they were fed for 45 days. Except for the offspring of Cherry Valley duck, the slaughter performance of other hybrid offspring was better than Cherry Valley duck. The weight gain of the offspring of each group tended to be gentle after 70 days, and the muscle fat content and tenderness were significantly better than Cherry Valley duck (P 0.01), and the breast muscle protein content was higher than Cherry Valley duck, and the meat quality was better.5. The hybrid offspring of Cherry Valley duck and Jinding duck had the highest 45-day survival rate, the largest live weight, the lowest feed-meat ratio and the highest total clean-hearted rate. At the same time, the fertilized eggs had the highest hatching rate, and the hybrid female parent Jinding duck had good egg-laying performance, and the Green-shell duck eggs were more popular in the market.
【学位授予单位】:扬州大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2017
【分类号】:S834

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