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弗洛姆信仰理论研究

发布时间:2018-01-12 19:21  文章来源:笔耕文化传播

  本文关键词:弗洛姆信仰理论研究 出处:《浙江大学》2016年博士论文 论文类型:学位论文


  更多相关文章: 弗洛姆 人的诞生 X体验 信仰主体 信仰行为 信仰对象


【摘要】:对宗教、信仰的讨论是弗洛姆整体思想中的重要有机组成部分,但无论国内还是国外,有关这一主题的研究都存在较大局限。本文试图在考察弗洛姆思想发展脉络的基础上,借鉴国内信仰学的研究成果,运用"信仰主体——信仰行为——信仰客体"的动态逻辑框架系统重构弗洛姆相关理论,并将其置于伴随现代化进程而出现的"信仰危机"的历史背景下,通过横向与纵向比较发掘其理论之独特性,旨在为研究弗洛姆思想提供新的视角,也为当下社会信仰困境提供一定的启示。经历1926年放弃犹太教信仰与1937年扬弃正统弗洛伊德主义的两次思想转折后,弗洛姆形成无神论的"激进人道主义"思想,"人"成为弗洛姆研究宗教、信仰的逻辑起点和最终目的。"人的诞生"开始后,信仰主体作为一个处于自然、社会历史与生存两歧三个相互关联的维度中的身心、知情合一的人,其独特的多层次处境与生理-心理结构、机制,使其产生了追求生存意义、指向"谐一"的"x体验",它在无意识层面构成了信仰的经验基础,其意识化与意识形态化都受到社会的制约,由于知性语言的社会过滤器作用和思虑作用,只有用普遍象征语言才能表达其丰富含义。信仰行为则是信仰主体对"x体验"的反应,不但是一种相信、信服的思想状态,更是信仰主体在具体的社会历史条件下全身心的、对自己生存答案的探索和践行。"同化过程"与"社会化过程"中形成的社会性格是信仰行为的基础。按照性格结构中创发性取向的多少,弗洛姆将信仰行为分为理性与分理性两种形式。弗洛姆将理性置于人格整体之中,剖析了理性、信仰、怀疑三者之间的辩证关系。理性信仰植根于人自己的体验,对自己思考力、观察力及判断力的了解与信赖,与理性怀疑相关联,它不仅体现在思考和判断领域,也体现在人的生活实践中。它促使人们怀着希望,进行一种持续的、积极的自我创造,有利于"人的诞生"。而非理性信仰是对某个神、某个人、某种思想或某种象征的盲目迷信,并非出于人自己的思想或情感的体验,而是以人对非理性权威的情感屈从和对现有意识形态的接纳为基础。如果社会宣扬的意识形态与社会性格之间具有差异,会造成人们思想与行为的分裂,形成"假信仰"现象。同时,弗洛姆还研究了自由意志与信仰选择的问题,作为温和决定论者,他为人们自由选择信仰的可能性留出了余地,并探讨了先知与禅师等理性权威的作用。信仰客体被弗洛姆视为" x体验"在不同社会历史文化结构中的概念系统呈现,按照"原始崇拜——母性人格神宗教——父性人格神宗教——理性一神论宗教——无神宗教——宗教消亡"的路线发展。在他看来,宗教演变是一个客观过程,与生产力水平、生产关系、人自身的心理状况、理性与情感能力等因素密切相关,并且在不同的阶段发挥着不同的历史功能,但这种发展并非后者取代前者的线性更迭,而是一种以某种宗教形态为主、显隐并存、进化和倒退交织并行的过程。根据社会条件所塑造的社会性格结构所导致的不同存在体验,弗洛姆将宗教分为权威主义和人道主义两种类型;根据它们对"人的诞生"的作用,分为积极和消极的宗教,但这些分类只是对其特征的分类,而不是对现实存在的宗教的分类,任何现存成体系宗教中,积极和消极、权威主义与人道主义均混合出现。最后,在呈现弗洛姆信仰理论的完整面貌后,本文指出了它的贡献与不足,并试图对其作出客观评价。
[Abstract]:On the religious belief, discussion is an important component part of Fromm's whole thought, but both at home and abroad, there are many limitations of the research on this topic. This article attempts to study Fromm thought development history, domestic Beliefology research results, using the "dynamic logic framework of system reconstruction of Fromm the theory of the main belief -- faith behavior -- the belief object", and the process of modernization and the emergence of "belief crisis" under the historical background, through horizontal and vertical comparison to explore its unique theory, in order to provide a new perspective for the study of Fromm thought, but also provide some enlightenment for the plight of social belief the experience of 1926. Give up the two turning point of thought of Judaism and orthodox doctrine of Freud 1937 sublation, Fromm formed atheism "radical humanitarianism" Fromm thought, "people" become the logical starting point of the study of religion, belief and ultimate purpose. "People born after the start, the main belief is in a natural, social history and the dichotomy of survival three interrelated dimensions in mind, emotion in one person, its unique multi-level situation and physiology the psychological structure, mechanism, the pursuit of survival significance, pointing to the" harmony "in the" x experience ", which constitutes the basis of religious experience at the unconscious level, the consciousness and ideology are restricted by the society, because of the social and intellectual language filter only with common thinking, symbolic language to express the rich meaning. Faith behavior is the main belief of" x experience "response, but not a compelling state of mind, I believe, is the main belief in the specific social and historical conditions of the heart, the answer to their survival Cable and practice. Formation of "assimilation" and "socialization" of the social character is the basis of faith behavior. According to the personality structure, a number of orientation, Fromm will act of faith divided into two forms of rationality and rationality. Fromm will be placed in the whole rational personality, analyzes the reason, faith, the dialectical relationship between doubt three. Rational belief is rooted in the people of their own experience, thinking, understanding and trust and observe the judgment, associated with reasonable doubt, it is not only reflected in the thinking and judgment, is also reflected in the practice in the lives of the people. It encourages people with hope, a persistent, positive self creation, is conducive to the "birth". And the irrational beliefs of a God, a person, a thought or a symbol of the blind superstition, not because of who your thoughts or feelings of the experience, but by the people of Non rational authority emotion submission and ideology based on the existing admission. If has the difference between ideology and social character of social publicity, will cause people to think and act split, forming "false belief" phenomenon. At the same time, Fromm also studied the free will and belief selection problem as a moderate determinism, he for the free choice to leave room for the possibility of faith, and discusses the prophet and Jackson etc. rational authority role. The object of faith by Fromm as "x experience" presents the concept system in the historical and cultural structure of different societies, in accordance with the "primitive worship maternal personality god religion -- father personality god religion -- Rational monotheistic religions no -- religion -- religious death" route. In his view, the religious evolution is an objective process, and the level of productivity, production relations, people's heart Physical condition, reason and emotion ability and other factors are closely related, and in different stages of history play different functions, but this development is not the latter to replace the linear change of the former, but a kind of religion in some form, explicit and implicit coexist, evolution and retrogression process. According to the different interleaving parallel existing social character shaped structure the social conditions caused by the experience, Fromm will be divided into religious authority and humanitarian two types; according to their effects on the "birth", divided into positive and negative religious, but these are only the classification of classification features, rather than on the real existence of religious classification, any existing a system of religious, positive and negative, authoritarianism and humanism are mixed. Finally, the complete appearance of the belief in Fromm theory, this paper points out its contributions and shortcomings, and try to It makes an objective evaluation.

【学位授予单位】:浙江大学
【学位级别】:博士
【学位授予年份】:2016
【分类号】:B712.59


本文编号:1415652


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