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伊壁鸠鲁的快乐主义探析

发布时间:2018-05-16 07:53  文章来源:笔耕文化传播

  本文选题:伊壁鸠鲁 + 快乐主义 ; 参考:《中国青年政治学院》2015年硕士论文


【摘要】:“快乐主义”作为晚期希腊哲学的一个重要思想流派,从产生之日就一直得到历代哲学家们的普遍关注。伊壁鸠鲁以古希腊哲学先贤的伦理思想为基础,提出“快乐是最高的善”的观点,并围绕这一观点建立的自己的哲学体系。在之后的发展中,有关快乐主义内涵的争论也从未间断,各时代的哲学家们也都纷纷提出了自己的观点。但是,对于“快乐主义”的理解仍然还存在诸多的疑惑。探究快乐主义的问题所涉及领域之广泛,无论是伦理学、人类学、文学、历史学等领域都能找到对于“快乐主义”的观点。但每个领域对于“快乐主义”的阐述又大都无法脱离各自所处的历史阶段、阶级背景和文化处境。在西方哲学史中,伊壁鸠鲁提出快乐主义的伦理观,也是当时错综复杂的社会背景下的精神产物。在写给梅瑙凯的信中,伊壁鸠鲁就基于当时人们的心理对欲望进行了分类,即自然的和必要的欲望、自然而不必要的欲望、既不自然又不必要的欲望。并提出快乐就是“免除身体的痛苦和灵魂的烦恼”的观点。伊壁鸠鲁认为,人们对于欲望的满足要学会“审慎”,在满足自然欲望之后,要追求更高层次的快乐,即精神上的快乐。但囿于时代的局限性,其理论仍有明显的缺陷和不足。纵观伊壁鸠鲁的快乐主义,我们可以发现,他所追求的是一种基于理性的快乐,注重的是心灵的宁静。因此,其理论在指导人生追求和价值选择方面具有重要的现实意义。
[Abstract]:As an important school of thought in Late Greek philosophy, "joyism" has been widely concerned by philosophers from generation to generation. Epicurus, based on the ethical thought of ancient Greek philosophers, put forward the idea of "happiness is the highest good", and the philosophical system built around this point of view. In the development, the debate about the connotation of the happy doctrine has never ceased, and the philosophers of all times have put forward their own views. However, there are still many doubts about the understanding of "joyism". All fields can find the view of "joyism". But in every field, most of the elaboration of "happiness" can not be separated from the historical stage, class background and cultural situation. In the history of western philosophy, Epicurus put forward the ethics of happiness, and it is also the spiritual product of the complex social background. In the letter to meagunkai, Epicurus was based on the mentality of the people at that time to classify desires, that is, natural and necessary desires, natural and unnecessary desires, neither natural nor unnecessary desires. And the idea of happiness is "free from the pain of the body and the trouble of the soul". Epicurus thinks that people are interested in the desire. The satisfaction of expectation is to learn "prudence", after satisfying natural desires, to pursue a higher level of happiness, that is, spiritual happiness. But limited to the limitations of the times, the theory still has obvious defects and shortcomings. Therefore, its theory has important practical significance in guiding life pursuit and value choice.

【学位授予单位】:中国青年政治学院
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2015
【分类号】:B502.31

【参考文献】

相关期刊论文 前1条

1 崔延强;通向宁静之路——晚期希腊的哲人理想[J];哲学研究;2000年07期



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    扩展阅读
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    2. 伊壁鸠鲁的快乐主义探析--《中国青年政治学院》2015年硕士论文
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