热门搜索: 论文 发表 社科期刊 北大核心 南大核心 cssci 科技期刊 教育

当前位置:主页 > 社科论文 > 哲学论文 >

叔本华哲学中的“痛苦”概念研究

发布时间:2018-06-13 16:54  文章来源:笔耕文化传播

  本文选题:叔本华 + 悲观主义 ; 参考:《南京大学》2017年硕士论文


【摘要】:叔本华的意志哲学问世于德国唯心论如日中天之时。看似不合时宜,实际上,是西方哲学自身发展、时代思潮共同作用的产物。叔本华以其意志的形而上学为基础,提出了其悲观主义和痛苦的学说,要求人们直面这个世界痛苦的本质。而他这么做,不仅仅是出于对人生意义的真挚追寻,也是对东西方先哲们的相关思想进行回应的结果。叔本华强调痛苦,是让人首先直面痛苦的事实,然后去寻求痛苦的解脱。而在叔本华看来,从痛苦中解脱有三种途径:首先,是在物我相融的审美意识中,通过对作为对象的柏拉图式理念的思考暂时摆脱意志的奴役。而柏拉图式的理念,对于叔本华来说,不仅是暂时逃离痛苦的缰绳,也是其完整科学的解释这个世界的必要组成部分。对叔本华关于审美意识方面的内容,存在着一些争论,特别是关于人们在审美意识如何达到物我相融,以及叔本华关于悲剧的相关理论和对艺术的看法相矛盾;其次,是通过道德行为致力于减少他人的痛苦。叔本华重新解释人的行为,认为人的行为是人的性格对动机做出的反应。动机按照目的分为四种,即利己,利他,邪恶和不知名。只有出于利他动机做出的行为才具有道德意义,他以此为基础,提出了自己同情的道德学说。尽管叔本华同情的道德理论存在着一些理论上的矛盾,但是不可否认的是,他的道德学在批判西方个体独特性等观念上有着重要意义;最后,在禁欲主义中,人由于看清了这个世界注定痛苦的本质,慢慢转向了否定意志,以期获得最终的自由。叔本华关于禁欲主义的内容,有前后两个不同的版本,最终一种通过温和、平缓的方式去否定意志的禁欲主义,代替了之前有着极端行为的禁欲主义。叔本华关于从痛苦中彻底获得解脱的理论,也就是其否定意志的理论,一直以来争议颇多,这里关键在于理解,当叔本华将否定意志后,进入到一种"虚无",这里的虚无是相对而言的,并不是绝对的虚无。叔本华否定意志的理论,可以看到强烈的印度思想的痕迹,只有对印度思想进行一定的了解,才能把握叔本华哲学中痛苦相关的说教。叔本华对于印度思想的吸收借鉴是具有创造性、开拓性的尝试。虽然他的痛苦学说具有一定的悲观主义色彩,但是他通过对现实的思考、东西方哲学传统的批判以及融贯东西方思想,提出对人生意义、宗教和哲学的关系以及对于西方文明发展历程的反思,这些都是具有独特的意义。
[Abstract]:Schopenhauer's philosophy of will came out at the height of German idealism. It seems anachronistic, in fact, it is the product of western philosophy's own development and the trend of thought of the times. Schopenhauer, based on the metaphysics of his will, puts forward his theory of pessimism and suffering, which requires people to face up to the essence of suffering in this world. He did so not only out of a sincere search for the meaning of life, but also as a response to the ideas of Eastern and Western philosophers. Schopenhauer stresses that pain is the fact that one faces pain first, and then seeks relief from it. In Schopenhauer's view, there are three ways to extricate from suffering: first, in the aesthetic consciousness of the fusion of object and self, we can get rid of the bondage of will temporarily through thinking about the platonic idea as the object. For Schopenhauer, the Platonic idea is not only a temporary escape from the reins of pain, but also a necessary part of his complete and scientific explanation of the world. There are some arguments about Schopenhauer's aesthetic consciousness, especially about how people achieve the fusion of the aesthetic consciousness, and the contradiction between Schopenhauer's theory about tragedy and his views on art. It is through moral behavior to work to reduce the suffering of others. Schopenhauer reinterprets human behavior as a reaction of personality to motivation. Motivation is divided into four categories according to purpose: self-interest, altruism, evil and unknown. Only acts motivated by altruism have moral significance, on which he puts forward his moral doctrine of compassion. Although Schopenhauer's moral theory of sympathy has some theoretical contradictions, it is undeniable that his moral theory is of great significance in criticizing the individual uniqueness of the West; finally, in asceticism, By seeing the painful nature of the world, man slowly turns to negative will in the hope of ultimate freedom. Schopenhauer's content about asceticism has two different versions before and after, and finally one kind of asceticism, which negates will in a gentle and gentle way, replaces the asceticism which had extreme behavior before. Schopenhauer's theory of complete relief from suffering, his theory of negating will, has long been controversial. The key here is to understand that when Schopenhauer will deny will, Enter into a "nothingness", here nihilism is relatively, is not absolute nothingness. Schopenhauer's theory of negating will can see the traces of strong Indian thought. Only by understanding Indian thought to a certain extent can we grasp the painful preaching in Schopenhauer's philosophy. Schopenhauer's reference to Indian thought is a creative and pioneering attempt. Although his theory of pain has a certain color of pessimism, he puts forward the significance of life through thinking about reality, criticizing the traditional philosophy of the East and the West and merging the thought of the East and the West. The relationship between religion and philosophy, as well as the reflection on the development of Western civilization, are of unique significance.
【学位授予单位】:南京大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2017
【分类号】:B516.41

【参考文献】

相关期刊论文 前4条

1 杨玉昌;;叔本华对于理性与意志关系的探索及其意义[J];中山大学学报(社会科学版);2016年05期

2 杨玉昌;;人的觉醒、迷失与寻求——叔本华意志哲学的人学意义研究[J];现代哲学;2016年03期

3 杨玉昌;;叔本华的形而上学与柏拉图的理念[J];云南大学学报(社会科学版);2011年05期

4 杨玉昌;;重新认识和评价叔本华的悲观主义[J];现代哲学;2010年02期



本文编号:2014712


论文下载
论文发表
教材专著
专利申请


    下载步骤:1.微信扫码 2.备注编号 2014712. 3.下载文档

    注:1.必须备注编号,否则无法下载;2.扫码后10分钟即可下载,如有问题,点击微信联系客服。

    扩展阅读
    1. 叔本华哲学中的“痛苦”概念研究-手机知网
    2. 叔本华哲学中的“痛苦”概念研究
    3. 叔本华哲学简介_百度文库
    4. 浅论叔本华的意志哲学与生命观
    5. 融汇中西升华传统_王国维境界说与叔本华哲学的关系.pdf全文-工作...
    6. 叔本华的人生哲学_百度百科
    7. 叔本华哲学概论
    8. 试论叔本华意志主义美学视域中音乐与哲学的一致性_NoRestriction...
    9. 在“拼凑”中推陈出新——探讨叔本华哲学研究的思想线索 - 豆丁网


    本文连接:http://www.bigengculture.com/zhexuezongjiaolunwen/2014712.html

    上一篇:重新审视马克思与海德格尔的会通  
    下一篇:没有了