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王国维哲学思想研究

发布时间:2018-09-13 11:15  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:王国维先生字静安,又字伯隅,晚号观堂,亦号永观,浙江海宁县人。王国维先生生于清朝晚期,其对于文学、美学、史学、哲学、古文学方面的研究在中国近代功绩颇丰,但是近代学术界一直将他作为一位史学和文学大家来研究,孰不知二十世纪是中国文化发展变化最深刻的时期,新时代所带来的新思维,新方法和新的学术文化氛围对于中国文化数百年的沉闷带来了一丝新的曙光,而王国维先生在其二十九岁的时候已经在《教育世界》等知名刊物上发表过一些文章,这些文章汇集成《静庵文集》,他那时候的中心学术著作还是针对哲学方面的,他在《静庵文集》自序中曾经说:“余之研究哲学始于辛壬之间,癸卯春始读汗德之《纯理批判》,,苦其不可解读,几半而辍。嗣读叔本华之书而大好之。自癸卯之夏至甲辰之冬,皆以叔本华之书为伴侣。……后渐觉其有矛盾之处,去夏所做《红楼梦评传》,其立论虽全在叔氏之立脚地,然第四章中已提出绝大之疑问。旋悟叔氏之说半出于其主观之气质,而无关于主观的知识,此意于《叔本华尼采》一书中畅发之。”[1]p469由此可见王国维先生的主要哲学思想受西方康德、叔本华等人影响,对于传统的中国哲学对于人的理解提出了一定的修正和解释,他在中国传统哲学概念中引入西方哲学的看法和观点,与之对比分析质疑,从而使国人能够接触到与中国思维所不同的西方哲学观点,对当代士人心智教育的开化和对向西方哲学学习取长补短重新理解中国哲学中对人的解释和分析有重要意义。但受时代环境所限,他思想中所倡导的人的学习西方和西方思想的传输仅仅限于学术角度,而并非真正的传播西方开明进步的民主思想,从根本上又不愿意触动封建正统思想的基石,叔本华的天才观对其的影响也使得王国维先生相信人生是苦难的充满悲剧色彩的,天才与常人之不同在于能够洞悉世界的缺陷,而社会的主体道德价值与个人价值相冲突,个人又不得不服从于社会集体的价值,在自己的个人情欲和社会崇尚的价值道德中自己又不得不选择社会主流道德价值遵从,这是王国维所在时代的世人心态的真实写照。因此,王国维先生的哲学中的对人的见解和思维是独到的和具有鲜明特色的理论,对我们研究王国维思想中对人的教育和人性中理性与非理性的解读有重要意义。因此避开哲学的方面去研究王国维,这个王国维是不完整的,本文立足于研究王国维先生的哲学思想入手分析王国维先生的对于哲学的见解以及对于中国哲学的批判,西方哲学中康德的解读和叔本华思想的引入,叔本华哲学对于王国维先生人生观和哲学思想的影响和王国维对于叔本华思想的吸收和批判以及西方哲学研究方法的分析对于中国式哲学思维方式的改进等方面去从新还原和认识一个新的王国维,这对于现代社会解读王国维哲学思想,提升人的自身审美价值培养审美观念以及在王国维的角度去感受人生的解脱之道意义尤为深刻。
[Abstract]:Mr. Wang Guowei was born in Haining County, Zhejiang Province in the late Qing Dynasty. His research on literature, aesthetics, history, philosophy and ancient literature has made great achievements in modern China, but he has been studied as a historian and literary master in modern academic circles. The 20th century is the most profound period of the development and change of Chinese culture. The new thinking, new methods and new academic and cultural atmosphere brought by the new era have brought a new dawn to the depression of Chinese culture for hundreds of years. At the age of 29, Mr. Wang Guowei has published some articles in famous publications such as Educational World. In his preface to Jing'an Anthology, he once said, "The rest of the philosophy of research began between Xin Ren and Wan Maochun began to read Khan Dezhi's Critique of Pure Reason, which was hard to understand and almost quit. He read Schopenhauer's book and was very good. Chen Zhidong took Schopenhauer's book as his companion. Later, he gradually realized that there were contradictions. Although his arguments were all based on Shu's foothold, Chapter 4 had raised great doubts. Xuanwu Shu's theory was partly based on his subjective temperament, and had no subjective knowledge, which meant that it was in Shu Ben Huanietzsche's book. [1] p469 shows that Mr. Wang Guowei's main philosophical thoughts are influenced by Western Kant, Schopenhauer and so on. He puts forward some amendments and explanations to the understanding of human beings in traditional Chinese philosophy. He introduces western philosophical views and viewpoints into Chinese traditional philosophical concepts and makes a comparative analysis and query with them, so that Chinese people can come into contact with them. Different from Chinese thinking, western philosophical viewpoints are of great significance to the Enlightenment of contemporary scholars'mental education and the re-understanding of the interpretation and analysis of human beings in Chinese philosophy. The influence of Schopenhauer's view of genius on it makes Mr. Wang Guowei believe that life is miserable and full of tragic colors. Genius differs from ordinary people in its ability to see the defects of the world and society. The moral value of the subject is in conflict with the individual value, and the individual has to submit to the value of the social collective. In his own personal desire and the value morality advocated by the society, he has to choose the social mainstream moral value to comply with. This is the true portrayal of the World mentality of Wang Guowei's time. Therefore, in Mr. Wang Guowei's philosophy. It is of great significance for us to study Wang Guowei's thoughts on human education and the interpretation of rationality and irrationality in human nature. Therefore, it is incomplete to study Wang Guowei by avoiding philosophical aspects. This paper is based on the study of Wang Guowei's philosophical thoughts. This paper begins with an analysis of Mr. Wang Guowei's views on philosophy and his criticism of Chinese philosophy, Kant's interpretation of western philosophy and the introduction of Schopenhauer's thought, the influence of Schopenhauer's philosophy on Mr. Wang Guowei's outlook on life and philosophical thought, and Wang Guowei's absorption and criticism of Schopenhauer's thought, as well as the division of Western philosophical research methods. Analyzing the improvement of Chinese-style philosophical thinking mode to restore and recognize a new Wang Guowei is of great significance to the interpretation of Wang Guowei's philosophical thinking in modern society, the cultivation of aesthetic values and the feeling of life's liberation from Wang Guowei's point of view.
【学位授予单位】:河北大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2013
【分类号】:B259.9

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