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陈献章哲学思想研究

发布时间:2019-01-09 10:46
【摘要】:作为宋明理学的代表人物,陈献章“自得”和“悟道”的为学方式,使学者对其思想的渊源和归属产生了争论。这一争论的焦点体现在其学说是否为佛学,是否保持了儒家内在的学理。本文从两个方面去探讨其哲学思想形成的原因。首先是从内在的学理上的把握,陈献章借鉴了道家“道”的观念,从而形成其“道”论;融合了佛家“静”的思想,主张“静坐中养出涵养”的修养方法。而由孔子开创“仁”的思想,成为其学说的主要根基。其次是从主体的境遇上来分析,特别是家庭环境,以及曲折的求学经历上对其学说的形成产生的重要影响。作为宋明理学的重要组成部分,其学说体现了明显的心学特征。陈献章以自己独特的人生经历,加之对儒道释的融会贯通,最终形成了独具特色的白沙学。 研究陈献章的哲学思想,必须建立起系统的思想体系。刘宗周评价说:“学宗自然,而要归于自得”。“自得之学”成为其学说的关键和枢纽。陈献章解释了“自得”的内涵,指出“自得”是求诸于“心”,而非求诸外求诸于物。通过对“心”的把握来达到“不累于外物,不累于耳目,不累于一切,鸢飞鱼跃在我”的境界。陈献章指出了实现“自得”的两个方法,其一是静坐,其二是体悟,通过对君子人格的获得,最后达到圣人的最高境界和终极关怀。 回答“自得之学”如何成为可能,构成了陈献章学说的“道”论。陈献章吸收了道家“道”的观点,构建了以“道”为中心的本体论思想。通过继承张载的“气”的思想,实现了由“道”向“物”的贯通,最后达到“天人一理”,强调了人的自我价值,突出了人的主体性。而“心”论则回答了“自得之学”如何能够实现的问题。通过对“心为道舍”、“心具万理”和“心即是天”的论述,实现了由宇宙论向价值论的过渡,为明代心学的繁荣奠定了基础。 “自得之学”是通过涵养功夫来实现的。陈献章提出了涵养“心”的目标和要求。要做到“洗心”、“存心”和“充心”,这样涵养的工夫才有真正的内容,而通过“不离日用”、“随处体认”和“勿助勿长”的方法才能达到。其涵养的方法和途径,被其后学湛若水发挥为“随处体认天理”的重大命题。 作为明代心学的开启着,陈献章的“自得之学”改变了明朝初期时惟朱子学独尊的局面,书院讲学的风气也开启了明代书院的繁荣。陈献章创立的江门学派和后起王阳明的姚江学派,共同构成了明代心学的主要内容,使得明代心学成为宋明理学的重要组成部分。陈献章一生大多数时间居于岭南,其创立的江门学派对岭南文化和岭南精神的形成也产生重要影响。
[Abstract]:As a representative figure of Song Ming's Neo-Confucianism, Chen Xianzhang's "self-satisfied" and "savvy way" made scholars argue about the origin and ownership of his thoughts. The focus of this argument lies in whether the doctrine is Buddhism and whether it maintains the Confucian inner doctrine. This paper probes into the causes of the formation of his philosophical thought from two aspects. First of all, from the internal theoretical grasp, Chen Xianzhang used the Taoist "Tao" concept for reference, thus formed his "Tao" theory, fused the Buddhist "quiet" thought, and advocated the cultivation method of "cultivating self-cultivation" in meditation. Confucius created the thought of benevolence, which became the main foundation of his theory. Secondly, it analyzes from the situation of the subject, especially the family environment, as well as the tortuous learning experience, which has an important influence on the formation of his theory. As an important part of Song Ming's Neo-Confucianism, his theory embodies obvious characteristics of cardiology. Chen Xianzhang, with his own unique life experience, combined with the integration of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism, finally formed a unique science of Baisha. To study Chen Xianzhang's philosophical thought, we must set up a systematic thought system. Liu Zongzhou said: "learn from nature, and should be attributed to self-satisfaction." The study of self-gratification has become the key and pivot of his theory. Chen Xianzhang explains the connotation of self-gratification and points out that self-satisfaction is seeking from the mind, not from the outside. Through the grasp of "heart" to achieve "not tired in external things, not tired in the ears and eyes, not tired in everything, kite flying fish jump in me" state. Chen Xianzhang points out two ways to realize "self-satisfaction", one is to sit still, the other is to realize, through the acquisition of the personality of a gentleman, to reach the highest realm and ultimate concern of saints. The answer to how the study of self-satisfaction is possible constitutes Chen Xianzhang's theory of Tao. Chen Xianzhang absorbed the Taoist view of Tao and constructed the ontological thought centered on Tao. Through inheriting Zhang Zai's thought of "Qi", the author realizes the link from "Tao" to "thing", and finally reaches "one principle of Heaven and Man", which emphasizes man's self value and highlights man's subjectivity. The theory of mind answers the question of how to realize the theory of self-gratification. Through the discussion of "the mind is the Tao", "the heart is universal" and "the heart is heaven", the transition from cosmology to value theory has been realized, which laid the foundation for the prosperity of the study of mind in the Ming Dynasty. The study of self-gratification is realized by cultivating kung fu. Chen Xianzhang put forward the goal and requirement of conserving the mind. It is necessary to "wash the heart", "save" and "fill the heart" so that the real content can be achieved through the methods of "daily use", "recognition everywhere" and "don't help not grow". The ways and means of its conservation are played by its postschool Zhanrushi as the important proposition of "knowing the theory of nature everywhere". As the opening of the study of mind in the Ming Dynasty, Chen Xianzhang's "the study of self-satisfaction" changed the situation of Zhu Zi's exclusive study in the early Ming Dynasty, and the atmosphere of academy of learning also opened the prosperity of the academy of learning in the Ming Dynasty. The Jiangmen School, founded by Chen Xianzhang, and the Yao Jiang School, founded by Wang Yangming, together constituted the main contents of the psychology of the Ming Dynasty, which made the psychology of the Ming Dynasty become an important part of Song Ming's Neo-Confucianism. Chen Xianzhang lived in Lingnan for most of his life, and the Jiangmen School, which was founded by Chen Xianzhang, also had an important influence on the formation of Lingnan culture and Lingnan spirit.
【学位授予单位】:安徽大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2014
【分类号】:B248.1

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