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康德至善论研究

发布时间:2019-01-26 16:55  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:康德是德国古典哲学的开山大师,他的批判哲学通过回答我能知道什么、我应该做什么、我可以希望什么,最后回答了人是什么的问题。康德的哲学从这种意义上说就是人的哲学。康德在《实践理性批判》的结语部分说到了两件历久弥新,我们不断对之加增敬畏及玄思的事物:头上的星空和内心的道德律。康德对人的存在有一种道德上的信念及寄托。至善是康德道德哲学的核心概念,也是其为人类设定的道德理想状态。至善的主观根据是人的自由意志和对道德的敬重,客观根据是道德律令。康德的至善概念根源于人的理性,理论理性可以认识到至善的特征、实质和存在价值,并可以根据自由意志及尊重意向形成一定的道德价值观念;实践理性能够使人顺从道德律令的规约和引导开展道德性的行为。至善自身的完满在于德性与幸福的统一。德性是一种意志的自律,是自我约束,是意向革命,是对美好品质的向往及对恶的抗争,它是配享幸福的前提。只有出于对道德律的敬重及义务感不断丰富德性,才有可能实现终极的幸福状态,因此至善就是德性的壮大,就是人通过道德律而不断进行自治的完满状态。虽然康德对人有足够的信念,但是现世的经验告诉我们,人既不是完全理性,又不是完全善的,这种有限的理性存在者要实现德性的纯净或完满就既需要自由的意志、不朽的灵魂还需要完满的上帝以及个人主观的努力。道德因此应该是一种信仰,一种“理应就能够”、“明知不可而为之”的信仰,康德本人也是在努力使一种单纯崇拜和诫命的宗教寿终正寝,使一种建立在心灵、诚实以及道德信念之中的宗教兴盛起来。康德的道德哲学固然宏观伟岸,却也难免经受批评质疑。但是至善概念对当今人类社会发展却有着不容忽视的理论及现实意义。至善论圆全了道德是人的尺度、至善的本质在于人的自治、至善是道德的理想状态等论点。康德的道德哲学有着坚不可摧、根源于人类理性的体系。出于道德的号召对人类有着与生俱来的亲和力的现状,康德更加坚定了建立至善这种道德信仰。至善概念可以坚定人们的意念,明确人们的义务,陶冶人们的心灵,借助自然的方式来实现超自然的结果。康德的至善会引导人类从有缺陷的善向更善永无止境地进步。
[Abstract]:Kant was the pioneer of German classical philosophy. His critical philosophy answered the question of what I could know, what I should do, what I could hope for, and what man was. Kant's philosophy is human philosophy in this sense. The conclusion of Kant's critique of practical reason talks about two things that are old and new and we constantly increase our awe and metaphysics: the starry sky on the head and the moral law of the heart. Kant has a kind of moral belief and sustenance to the existence of man. The supreme goodness is the core concept of Kant's moral philosophy and its moral ideal state for mankind. The subjective basis of the supreme goodness is the free will and respect for morality, while the objective basis is the moral law. Kant's concept of supreme goodness is rooted in human rationality. Theoretical rationality can recognize the characteristics, essence and existence value of supreme goodness, and can form certain moral values according to free will and respect intention. Practical rationality can make people obey the rules of moral law and guide the conduct of morality. The perfection of the best lies in the unity of virtue and happiness. Virtue is a self-discipline of will, self-restraint, intention revolution, yearning for good quality and struggle against evil. It is the premise of happiness. Only because of respect for moral law and the sense of obligation to enrich virtue can we realize the ultimate happiness state. Therefore the ultimate goodness is the strengthening of virtue and the perfect state of self-governance through moral law. Although Kant has enough faith in man, the experience of this world tells us that man is neither completely rational nor completely good, and that such a limited rational being needs both free will to achieve the purity or perfection of virtue. Immortal souls also require complete God and personal subjective efforts. Morality should therefore be a kind of belief, a belief that "one ought to be able to", "knowing that one cannot do it", Kant himself is also trying to bring to an end a religion of pure worship and commandment, so that it can be built on the heart, The religion of honesty and moral belief flourished. Kant's moral philosophy, while macro-grand, but also inevitably subject to criticism and doubt. However, the concept of supreme goodness has theoretical and practical significance for the development of human society. The theory of the greatest goodness is the yardstick of morality, the essence of the supreme goodness lies in the autonomy of man, and the supreme goodness is the ideal state of morality. Kant's moral philosophy is indestructible and rooted in the system of human rationality. Because of the moral call to human beings with innate affinity, Kant strengthened the moral belief in the establishment of goodness. The concept of supreme goodness can strengthen people's minds, clarify people's obligations, cultivate people's hearts and achieve supernatural results by natural means. Kant's goodness will lead mankind from the defective good to the more good endless progress.
【学位授予单位】:昆明理工大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2017
【分类号】:B516.31

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