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奥康纳与福斯特的生态学马克思主义思想的比较研究

发布时间:2019-03-09 13:08
【摘要】:詹姆斯·奥康纳(James O’ Connor)和约翰·贝拉米·福斯特(John BellamyFoster)都是当代美国生态学马克思主义的代表,他们的生态学马克思主义思想是生态学马克思主义的重要组成部分。近20年来,两人分别以其具有开创性、较系统的生态马克思主义理论吸引了一批学者,在他们周围分别形成了学术共同体。奥康纳学术共同体和福斯特学术共同体的生态马克思主义都是具有原创性和系统性的理论思潮,然而,它们的研究范式却存在着根本的不同。 在与马克思的关系上,奥康纳基本否定马克思存在生态学思想,,主张把生态学注入到马克思的理论根基处,建立了“自然、劳动、文化”三位一体的新历史唯物主义;而福斯特则认为马克思的世界观是系统的生态学理论,用物质变换概念解释马克思的生态学。在对资本主义的批判上,奥康纳重释生产条件的概念,提出资本主义的第二重矛盾理论,强调资本主义的生产条件与生态危机的联系;而福斯特从人与自然间的物质变换出发,认为在资本主义条件下产生物质变换的裂缝,从而导致生态危机。在生态危机的解决之道上,奥康纳认为生态社会主义的实现途径是劳工运动与新社会运动的结合,强调的是新社会运动的作用;福斯特则主张通过政治上、文化上、战略上的生态革命来解决生态危机,从而走向可持续发展和共产主义。 本文把生态危机这一独特的现实问题作为理论的切入点,对马克思、生态学马克思主义,特别是奥康纳和福斯特的相关经典著作进行了详细阅读。对《马克思恩格斯著作选集》以及福斯特的《马克思的生态学——唯物主义与自然》和奥康纳的《自然的理由:生态学马克思主义研究》做了重点研究,在此基础上,通过对奥康纳和福斯特生态学马克思主义理论的比较分析,同中寻异,异中求同,从马克思的经典文本出发,对二者进行系统的比较,不仅是对构建马克思主义理论新形态的探索,也可以为当代生态学的研究和我国生态文明建设带来许多有益的启示,对解决当今生态环境问题和构建社会主义和谐社会具有积极意义。
[Abstract]:James O'Connor and John Bellamy Foster (John BellamyFoster) are the representatives of contemporary American ecological Marxism. Their ecological Marxist thought is an important part of ecological Marxism. In the past 20 years, the two have attracted a group of scholars for their pioneering, more systematic ecological Marxist theory, and formed academic communities around them. Ecological Marxism of O'Connor academic Community and Foster academic Community are original and systematic theoretical trends of thought. However, their research paradigms are fundamentally different. In relation to Marx, O'Connor basically negated Marx's thought of existence ecology, advocated infusing ecology into Marx's theoretical foundation, and established the new historical materialism of "nature, labor and culture". Forster, on the other hand, thinks that Marx's world outlook is a systematic ecological theory, explaining Marx's ecology with the concept of material transformation. On the criticism of capitalism, O'Connor re-explains the concept of production conditions, puts forward the second contradiction theory of capitalism, and emphasizes the connection between capitalist production conditions and ecological crisis. From the point of view of material transformation between man and nature, Forster thought that the cracks in material transformation under capitalist conditions would lead to ecological crisis. On the way to solve the ecological crisis, O'Connor thinks that the way to realize ecological socialism is the combination of labor movement and new social movement, and emphasizes the function of the new social movement. Forster advocates to solve the ecological crisis through the ecological revolution in politics, culture and strategy, so as to move towards sustainable development and communism. This paper takes ecological crisis as the starting point of the theory, and makes a detailed reading of Marx, ecological Marxism, especially O'Connor and Foster's classical works. On the basis of the study of selected works of Marx and Engels, Faust's "Marx's Ecology-materialism and Nature" and O'Connor 's "reason of Nature: ecological Marxism Research", Based on the comparative analysis of O'Connor 's and Foster's ecological Marxism theories, this paper makes a systematic comparison between them from the perspective of Marx's classical texts. It is not only the exploration of constructing the new form of Marxist theory, but also can bring many beneficial enlightenments to the study of contemporary ecology and the construction of ecological civilization in our country. It is of positive significance to solve the problems of ecological environment and to build a harmonious socialist society.
【学位授予单位】:武汉理工大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2014
【分类号】:B089.1

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