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论海德格尔“此在”与“共在”的关系

发布时间:2019-03-12 18:37  文章来源:笔耕文化传播
【摘要】:作为一个关注现实的哲学家,海德格尔的思想从来不是高高在上的空洞理论,他从最贴近生活的地方追寻哲学的意义,在他看来,人之为人不是孤立的存在,而是在世界中现实的、生动的、瞬息万变的与其他存在者交织在一起,他以诗意的语言描述了一幅灵动的栖居图。正是如此,海德格尔“此在”与“共在”之间的关联问题才如此吸引我。无论是作为人的存在的“此在”,还是与他人的“共在”,都建立在海德格尔独特的生存论基础之上,可以说,生存论是海德格尔哲学的根。因此,应该从对存在的追问开始来探讨“此在”。海德格尔要追问存在的意义,首先要找到一个存在者的样本来通达存在,这个样本就是“此在”,即人的存在。他强调,从“Dasein”来理解人,让它具有了向来我属性,因此,只有用现象学的方法从最接近人的日常平均生存状态的地方才能展现“此在”的生存。日常生存状态的“此在”总是和其他存在者交织在一起,具有“在世界之中”的结构,这一结构即保持了“此在”与他人交往中的独立性,又规定了“此在”的存在是与他人“共在”,正是“共在”才让世界成为我们共同分享的世界。笔者认为,建基于生存论上的“此在”与“共在”,并不是简单的个体与群体之间的关系,因为海德格尔独特的时间视阈揭示出“此在”操心的曾在、当前和将来三种样态,它们展现了“此在”作为“共在”而存在,或者说“此在”本质上就是“共在”;但海德格尔的流俗时间与本真时间又决定了“此在”有本真与非本真两种存在状态,只有从本真的时间,即将来领悟“此在”,才能达到本真的“共在”。因此,“此在”与“共在”是辩证统一的关系,“共在”中有“此在”,“此在”中有“共在”;“此在”以“共在”为基础,“共在”决定了“此在”的发展方向和趋势,是“此在”的形而上学。通过对“此在”与“共在”概念的分析及两者关联的研究,无非在于唤起对“共在”的重视,是它让“此在”的存在成为可能,它对于我们到底该如何“共在”于世意义重大:要克服主客对立的思维,调整人与人及人与其他存在者之间的关系,让彼此在自由中自行显现,在本真中实现人与人、人与社会,人与自然的和谐。
[Abstract]:As a philosopher concerned with reality, Heidegger's thought was never a high-flying empty theory. He sought the meaning of philosophy from the place closest to life. In his view, human being is not an isolated existence. But in the world, real, vivid, fast-changing intertwined with other beings, he described in poetic language a picture of the spiritual habitation. That's why Heidegger's connection between "this" and "co-existence" attracts me so much. Whether as human being or co-existence with others, it is based on Heidegger's unique existentialism. It can be said that existentialism is the root of Heidegger's philosophy. Therefore, "this in" should be discussed from the question of existence. Heidegger wants to ask about the meaning of existence, first of all, we must find a sample of existence to access existence, this sample is "this in", that is, the existence of human beings. He stressed that understanding people from the "Dasein" gives them the attributes they have always had, so the existence of "this being" can only be demonstrated in a phenomenological way from the place closest to the daily average state of existence of the human being. The daily existence of "this in" is always intertwined with other beings, and has the structure of "in the world", which preserves the independence of "this" in dealing with others. It is also stipulated that the existence of "this being" is "co-existing" with others, it is "co-presence" that makes the world into a world we share together. The author believes that "this being" and "co-existence", based on the theory of existence, are not simple relationships between individuals and groups, because Heidegger's unique time horizon reveals that "this being" is concerned about the past, present and future three kinds of patterns. They show that "this being" exists as "co-existence", or that "this is in essence" is "co-presence"; However, Heidegger's vulgar time and true time have decided that there are two kinds of existence states: "this is true" and "non-real". Only by understanding "this being" from the true time, that is to say, the future, can we achieve the true "co-existence". Therefore, the relationship between "this being" and "co-existence" is dialectical and unified, there is "this in" co-existence ", and" co-presence "in" this in "; This is the metaphysics of "this being", which determines the development direction and trend of "this being" on the basis of "co-existing" and "co-existing", which determines the development direction and trend of "this in". Through the analysis of the concepts of "this being" and "co-existence" and the study of their relationship, it is nothing more than to arouse the importance of "co-existence", and it is it that makes the existence of "this being" possible. It is of great significance to how we should "co-exist" in the end: to overcome the antagonistic thinking of subject and object, to adjust the relationship between man and other beings, so that each other can manifest itself in freedom and realize man-to-person in truth. Harmony between man and society, between man and nature.
【学位授予单位】:华中师范大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2017
【分类号】:B516.54

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