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知识归因的实践转向

发布时间:2019-04-08 16:09
【摘要】:传统的知识论认为知识是得到辩护的真信念。知识和真信念的区别应该属于理论理性的范畴。语境主义延续了这个传统,认为"S知道p"的语义值是由语境中说话者的心理状态所决定的。在不同的语境中,"知道"表达了知识不同的标准。通过将日常语言语境和怀疑论语境区别开,语境主义保留了我们的日常知识。但是自身理论的缺陷以及对知识归因的局限性,导致语境主义陷入巨大困境。意识到这点的哲学家们开始将目光转向认知主体的实际环境,将知识和实践行为联系起来。他们发现知识归因的真值会随着认知主体所处的实际风险的改变而改变。决定知识归因的因素还应该包括那些属于实践理性范围的。这种观点的转变,标志着知识归因的实践转向。
[Abstract]:The traditional theory of knowledge holds that knowledge is the true belief to be defended. The difference between knowledge and true belief should belong to the category of theoretical rationality. Environmentalism continues this tradition and holds that the semantic value of "S know p" is determined by the psychological state of the speaker in the context. In different contexts, "know" expresses different standards of knowledge. By distinguishing the context of everyday language from the context of skepticism, situationalism preserves our daily knowledge. However, the defects of their own theory and the limitation of knowledge attribution lead to a great dilemma of contextual doctrine. Philosophers aware of this began to turn their attention to the physical environment of cognitive subjects, linking knowledge to practical behavior. They found that the truth of knowledge attribution changes with the actual risk of the cognitive subject. The factors that determine the attribution of knowledge should also include those that fall within the scope of practical rationality. This kind of view change, marks the knowledge attribution practice turn.
【作者单位】: 浙江大学人文学院;
【分类号】:N02

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