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学而优则仕:人的政治天命——对孔子政治思想的一种哲学理解

发布时间:2019-06-16 18:48
【摘要】:孔子一生追求"学而优则仕",但他理解的政治与俗常政治迥异其趣。他辞官以表达对好利无德的为政者的不赞同,并从"道""德"出发去理解政治的本性。他认为政治不只意味着官职或行使权力,而是将"为政"理解为伦常道德实践,把政治与人的本性本原地联系在一起,使政治朝向"道"。孔子认为,人是一个不断生成的存在,因其不断践行伦常道德而成为真正的人,人的本性就是弘道。孔子指出政治的本性由人的本性决定,政治是人成为人的最根本方式,为政就是人的天命。在形而上层面,孔子确立人人拥有政治权利的全民政治;在形而下层面,孔子确立"学而优则仕"的精英政治。在孔子心中,人"知天命"而好学才能真正获得从事具体政治事务的资格与能力。
[Abstract]:Confucius pursued "learning to be superior and official" all his life, but the politics he understood was very different from that of common politics. He resigned as an official to express his disapproval of those who were good and unscrupulous, and to understand the nature of politics from the point of view of "Tao" and "virtue". He believes that politics not only means official duties or the exercise of power, but also interprets "governance" as moral practice, links politics with human nature in situ, and makes politics move towards "Tao". Confucius believes that man is a continuous existence, because of its continuous practice of ethics and become a real person, human nature is Hongdao. Confucius pointed out that the nature of politics is determined by human nature, politics is the most fundamental way for human beings to become human beings, and governance is the destiny of human beings. At the metaphysical level, Confucius established the national politics in which everyone has political rights, and at the metaphysical level, Confucius established the elite politics of "learning and being superior." In Confucius' mind, only when people "know destiny" and are eager to learn can they really acquire the qualification and ability to engage in specific political affairs.
【作者单位】: 东北师范大学哲学学院;
【基金】:中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助项目“中华传统文化的德性特质及其德法结合的治国理念研究”(项目编号:QT15004) 吉林省教育厅项目“儒家‘德性法治’传统及其政治实践研究”的阶段性成果
【分类号】:B222.2

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