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大体与小体:孟子的身体观研究

发布时间:2019-06-28 14:28
【摘要】:近代以来,西方学术界发生的“身体学”转向,使得“身体”成为当代学术研究的重要切入点,“身体”在哲学上的地位也进一步凸显。这一“身体学”转向,在日益信息化、全球化的今天,也对中国传统哲学思想的研究产生了影响。具体到孟子思想的研究,“从身体的角度看”,不失为一种新的诠释“范式”。孟子把身体分为“大体”和“小体”,大体为心之官,小体为耳目之类,也指人的生理身体。大体之“大”,主要在于其有“思”的功能,此大体之“思”还有这道德实践的内涵,有着对德性的自觉和反省,此外,心与外物相接有所动时,又有情感的产生,心之所向与心之所持又表现为与“气”密切联系的“志”。心之逐步层面的含义也正是大体之“大”的原因。小体之“小”在于其不能思,而且又有着先天的感性欲望,如果不加控制引导,又可能会使人先天固有的善心有所丧失。大体和小体的关系从表面上看来存在着一定的分化,并且有着一定的现实原因和理论根据,但从根本上来说,二者最终还是要实现转化,达到大小体的合一,而促成大小体转化的基础就是“气”,通过气的不断流行和扩充,大体不断向小体渗透,小体也能够不断呈现出道德的向度。这种大小体之间的转化过程,也就是孟子所谓“践形”,践形的过程不仅要在一己之身内进行,还要参与到家国天下的进程中去,并最终实现内在超越和外在超越的贯通,实现与天地宇宙融为一体。
[Abstract]:Since modern times, the turn of "body" in western academic circles has made "body" become an important starting point of contemporary academic research, and the position of "body" in philosophy has also been further highlighted. This turn of "body science" has also had an impact on the study of Chinese traditional philosophy with the increasing informatization and globalization. To the study of Mencius' thought, "from the point of view of body", it is a new interpretation of "paradigm". Mencius divided the body into "gross" and "small body", generally the official of the heart, the body for the ear and eyes and so on, also refers to the physical body of people. In general, the "big" mainly lies in its function of "thinking", which also has the connotation of this moral practice, and has the consciousness and introspect of virtue. In addition, when the heart and the foreign thing move, there is emotion, and the direction of the heart and the hold of the heart are closely related to the "spirit". The meaning of the gradual level of the heart is also the general reason for the "big". The "small" of a small body lies in its inability to think and its innate perceptual desire. If it is not controlled and guided, it may lose one's inherent kindness. On the surface, there is a certain differentiation between the relationship between the body and the body, and there are certain practical reasons and theoretical basis, but fundamentally speaking, the two ultimately want to achieve the transformation to achieve the unity of large and small bodies, and the basis for the transformation of large and small bodies is "gas". Through the continuous popularity and expansion of gas, the corpuscle can also continue to show a moral dimension. The process of transformation between large and small bodies, that is, Mencius'so-called "practice form", should not only be carried out within one's own body, but also participate in the process of home, country and world, and finally realize the connection between internal transcendence and external transcendence, and realize the integration with heaven and earth and the universe.
【学位授予单位】:华东师范大学
【学位级别】:硕士
【学位授予年份】:2014
【分类号】:B222.5

【参考文献】

相关期刊论文 前1条

1 肖群忠;;论中国传统人性论思想的特点与影响[J];齐鲁学刊;2007年03期



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