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有限主体性的生成——试论马克思与德国古典哲学的内在关联

发布时间:2019-08-08 10:57
【摘要】:康德的先验主体是一个蕴含着有限性与无限性的矛盾体,其有限性主要体现在"自在之物"所标识的人的认识能力的限度上,无限性则体现在其追求统一性和综合的努力之中,但这两种相互排斥的要素在同一个哲学体系中必然无法持久地共存。后来的德国观念论者,费希特和黑格尔朝着无限性的方向予以发挥,将康德的先验主体逐步上升为绝对主体,却又不得不纠缠于体系中的有限性宿命。马克思则更多地发挥了有限性的维度,却也要面对主体的统一性问题。这种统一性集中展现在对实践活动,尤其是工具的重新考察之中。最终他通过一个人类学的有限主体模型承接了此前哲学体系的种种矛盾和张力,实现了有限主体由认识论领域到人类学领域的转变。
[Abstract]:Kant's transcendental subject is a contradiction that contains the finiteness and the infinite, the finiteness of which is mainly embodied in the limits of the cognition ability of the people identified by the "a free thing", and the incoherence is embodied in its pursuit of unity and comprehensive efforts. But these two mutually exclusive elements must not co-exist in the same philosophical system. Later, the German-minded, Fichte and Hegel played a role in the direction of non-existence, and the transcendental subject of Kant was gradually raised to the absolute subject, but had to be entangled in the limited accommodation in the system. Marx has more and more limited dimensions, but also faces the unity of the subject. This unity focuses on the re-examination of practical activities, in particular tools. In the end, he inherited the contradictions and tensions of the previous philosophy system through a finite body model of anthropology, and realized the transformation of the limited subject from the field of epistemology to the field of anthropology.
【作者单位】: 南开大学哲学院;
【分类号】:B0-0;B516.31

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